Akhlaq -> Character And Ethics

      1. Word ‘Akhlaq’ is a plural of ‘khul’q’. ‘khul’q’ and ‘khal’q’ are two different words. The later describes the visible looks and the former is to express the hidden traits. It is exactly the way a human body is formed. Hands, feet, eyes, and ears form the outer shape. Similarly a human being also has a soul and self (naf’s) which are not apparently visible but can only be gauged through insight and prudence. Allah Almighty has created human beings in various shapes, colours and traits. Some are born with both beautiful looks and character, while some have an ugly face and a disgusting character. Character and ethics are superior to the outer looks. Allah Almighty has attributed character to His Divine self. He has declared in the holy Quran.
        وَنَفَخْتُ فِیْہٰ مِنْ رُّوْحِی

        Then I put my soul into the body of Adam (AS). In the same verse Allah Almighty has attributed the soul as His Command:

        And they ask you about the soul. Say, “The soul is something from the command of my Lord, and you are not given from the knowledge but a little.” (Al Isra – 85)

        Unlike the body, human soul is neither inferior nor made of clay. Body is said to have been associated with clay
        وَاِنّیْ خَا لِقٌ م بَشَراً مِّنْ طِین

        Human soul mentioned here is the one that enables a person to beget understanding and vision of life. It is all through the Divine revelations and enlightenment depending upon individual capacity and prowess. It is thus proved that soul being a Divine command is superior, being the custodian of human character. A person cannot be gentle and mannered unless his/her interior is well structured. Exactly like the human body, character is formed with organs. These are the powers of knowledge, rage, intellect, fairness and lust/desire. A deformity in any one the power is like a flaw in the body. A disproportionate human body part results in an ugly figure.
    • Power of Knowledge
        1. Humans have been endowed with the power to understand, recognize and remember. This is called knowledge. It is through knowledge that one can differentiate between right and wrong, truth and lies, righteousness and sins and type of deeds performed. When this power is perfected then one is blessed with what has been described in the holy Quran:-
          وَمَنْ یُّوْتَی الْحِکْمَۃَ فَقَدْ اُوْتِیَ خَیْراً کَثِیْراً

          (A person blessed with balanced knowledge has actually been granted goodness)

          Lack or abundance of knowledge is conversely the root cause of all the ills. It should be sufficient to obviate ignorance and not too much to bring depravity. One should only strive to seek what has been permitted and not wander to obtain that is prohibited like destiny or the Divine personage. It is important to be able to distinguish between the essential knowledge and what is superfluous. Those seeking such balanced knowledge have been called in the Quran as راسخون فی العلم
    • Wrath And Range
        1. Human beings ward off unpleasant things. The enabling power is called wrath or rage. It has both positive and negative attributes. In its balanced form, it is chivalry (a desirable trait), in abundance it is dauntlessness or intrepidity and lack of it is cowardice. The former two conditions are undesirable. Chivalry makes one considerate, balanced, brave, graceful and farsighted. An intrepid person is hot tempered, showy, gaudy, proud and self indulgent. Cowardice makes a person mean, worthless, trivial, coward and trifling.
    • Desire And Lust
        1. One wants to own things liked by him/her. The motive behind this is termed as desire or lust. In the balanced form, it is called piety. When in excess, it is out right lust. Total lack of desire makes a person useless for the society. Allah Almighty has preferred its balanced form which can inculcate positive traits like generosity, modesty, patience and contentment. This develops the spirit to help others. Excess of desire or lust can lead one to hypocrisy, greed, sycophancy, immodesty, extravagance and jealousy.
    • Wisdom/Intellect
        1. Allah Almighty has blessed human being with knowledge which is used for their daily chores. Mind you, knowledge alone is not sufficient; wisdom and intellect is necessary to use knowledge suitably. There are many people who despite possessing knowledge cannot use it effectively because of lack of wisdom. Sentiments overwhelm a stupid person whereas intelligent people can control their passions. A person with balanced wisdom is considered a better administrator with foresight and understanding. His/her opinion is prudent and he/she can venture into any field. Over intelligence can lead one to mischief, fraud, cunning and deceit. A clumsy person, on the other hand can be idiotic and stupid, who could be hoodwinked easily.
    • Power of Judgment
        1. Judgment and balance or mental steadiness regulates the power of wrath with the help of wisdom. It uses knowledge to understand, wisdom to fathom the truth and guidance from Sunnah (tradition) to differentiate between good and bad aspects of rage and desire. All together this blend is applied according to the dictates of a situation. Anyone with these traits is considered to be a balanced person. Judgment acts as a linkage to amalgamate these powers. A balanced approach is desirable otherwise excess or lack of it can cause serious character flaws. Midcourse is the ideal option to exercise. Allah Almighty says:-
          خَیْرُ الاُمُوْرِاَوْسَا طُھَا

          (True believers are those who adopt a midcourse. They are neither miser nor extravagant)

          Like the outward looks, character is imbibed in people in varying degrees. Our holy Prophet (SAW) was the best in character. This has been authenticated by Allah Almighty:-
          اِنَّکَ لَعَلیٰ خُلُقٍ عَظِیْمٍ

          Measuring up to character of the Prophet (SAW) is an indication of the strength of one’s character. Rewards in the life hereafter shall be accordingly dispensed. Ethics are a natural instinct. No character traits are good or bad but how it is used make them so.
          مَنْ اَعْطیٰ ﷲِ فَقَدِاسْتَکْمَلَ الاِیْمَانَ

          (Who gives or refrains from it to only to please Allah Almighty, is the one whose faith is completed)

          In the verse above, both acts are linked to the Divine pleasure. Neither is in itself laudable or despised. So generosity or frugality are laudable when done to seek the Divine pleasure otherwise both are despicable. Same principal is applied to the essential character traits necessary for reformation of the self (naf’s). All being interlinked have to be treated in order to control the self. A person with ten body ailments will only be called healthy when is rid of all of them. Only a person with proportionate body organs can be called handsome. Similarly internal beauty is reflected through the desirable character traits culminating in a perfect personality. The Prophet (SAW) said,” Perfect character makes a Muslim. The best amongst them is the one with a better character and ethics. This, indeed, is the real religion.” The holy Prophet (SAW) came to this world to display its form in perfection.
          Courtesy is at times is considered to be the embodiment of character, which is not true. It is only a part of the character. A person meeting others decently, helping them or conversing nicely is considered to be sociable and courteous. Courtesy can be a part of character provided it is to please Allah Almighty. Otherwise it can be at best business ethics and nothing more. Here it is not intended to belittle the positive attributes of the non believers or weak Muslims. Actually these qualities are bestowed by Allah Almighty. The Prophet (SAW) had praised the generosity of Hatim of Tai, who was a non Muslim. Positive character traits, if not intended for the Divine pleasure can only fetch worldly gains, but cannot guarantee rewards in the life hereafter. After putting in effort and not getting rewarded is certainly a big loss. Conversely display of good conduct for worldly gains is cheating and fraud. Actually in the grab of courtesy it is impropriety.
    • Types of Judgment
        1. Inner character is of two types. First type relates to the heart (qal’b) and the second is associated with the self (naf’s). Those belonging to the heart are called ملکات فاضلہ comprising of sincerity of belief in oneness of Allah Almighty, repentance, love of Allah Almighty, trust in Allah Almighty, devotion, patience, mildness, gratitude, truthfulness, commitment, surrender to the will of Allah Almighty, consent and to be lost in the contemplation of Allah Almighty. A heart with all these qualities is called قلب سلیم . Allah Almighty says:
          یَوْمَ لَا یَنۡفَعُ مَالٌ وَّ لَا بَنُوۡنَ اِلَّا مَنْ اَتَی اللہَ بِقَلْبٍ سَلِیۡم

          (The Day when neither wealth will be of any use (to any one) nor sons, except to him who will come to Allah with a sound heart) (Al Shaura – 88, 89)

          The other types of traits are related to the self (naf’s). These are called vices of character اخلاق رذیلہ , which include greediness, anger, lies, jealousy, stinginess or avarice, pretence, conceit, pride, malice, love of world, love for status and love of desires. Cleansing one’s self from these vices is known as purification of the self تزکیہ نفس . Allah Almighty says:-
          (Success is really attained by him who purifies it)Al Shams – 9

          To acquire positive character trait and get rid one’s vices is rectification of the self which is obligatory. Tassawuf (spiritualism) is the route towards this end. Seemingly simple, it is actually an arduous course, yet possible to be tread. Allah Almighty only ordains what can be performed humanly.
          لَا یُکَلِّفُ اللہُ نَفْسًا اِلَّا وُسْعَہَا

          (On no soul doth Allah place a burden greater than it can bear) Al Baqara- 286

      1. Allah Almighty desires a purified heart. Person with a sick heart, no longer remains a human being. He/she can be expected to indulge in any kind of sinful activity. A sick/weak heart is liable to fall prey to any of the spiritual diseases, which can be fatal. Therefore the best option is get rid of them. Sequence of the treatment should best be left to the chosen spiritual guide. The disciple should only keep him informed and leave it to the wisdom of his guide. A stage reaches when the disciple is fully cured. Then it is important to maintain a good spiritual health.
        Ordinarily one is likely to suffer from one or another body sickness with passage of age. To protect a patient from more diseases in old age, it is considered to be a success of the physician. Conversely eradication of a spiritual ailment at any stage of the life enhances spiritual strength.
        The spiritual vices basically stem from the worldly love which comprises of love of status, love for wealth and desires.
        Allah Almighty says in the Quran:-
        وَمَا الحَیٰو ۃُ الدُّنْیَآ اِلاَّ مَتَاعُ الْغُرُوْرِ

        (Possessions of the world are nothing but a farce)

        The holy Prophet (SAW) said,
        اَلدُّنْیاَ سِجْنُ الْمُؤمِنِ وَجَنَّۃُ الْکَا فِرِ

        The world is a prison for a true believer and a paradise for an infidel. (Muslim)

        Anything that clashes with the Sharia is the world. The basic self (نفس امارہ) feels restrained because of the Sharia restrictions and wants to get rid of them on one pretext or another. A wise person ensures that his/her wealth is spent according to the dictates of Sharia. These constraints make the life of a believer a bit tough but very rewarding. On the other hand a non believer allows a free hand to the self to enjoy life, little realizing the great loss being incurred. Scholars explain that the life hereafter for a true believer will be spent in the Heavens where all his/her desires and wishes shall be granted and fulfilled. An infidel shall be in the Hell, where none of the wishes will come true.
    • Reality Of The World

        1. The World

          Anything which is purely done to please the self and it carries no reward in the life hereafter is, world.


          All spiritual diseases stem from the love for the world. The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          حُبُّ الدُّنْیَا رَأسُ کُلِّ خَطِیْٓئَۃٍ

          (Love of the world is the root cause of all ills)

          Once the root cause is removed, all ailments will be cured. A person in love with the world will be oblivious of the futurity and the hereafter. He/she will make no conscious effort towards good deeds and save him/herself from sins. Love of the world takes one away from the religion, ultimately leading to a total departure. World does not only comprise of wealth, sons, women but any condition/state or act which take one away from Allah Almighty.
                چیست دنیا از خدا غافل بُدن
          نے قماش و نقرئہ و فرزند و زن

          (The world, actually is all those things that make one negligent of the God, and not the wealth, ornaments, women and sons only)

          It is not wrong; to work for gains of this world provided one is not led astray from the Divine Commands. Wealth is like water and the heart is like a boat. That is why is said:-
                 آب در کشتی ہلاک کشتی است
          آب اندر زیر کشتی پشتی است

          (Water inside is its death, but outside it gives life to the boat)

          It is the water which the medium to steer the boat and it is again water which drowns it. Similarly wealth if hand and not immersed in the heart is useful tool but once its love engulfs the heart then it becomes ruinous.ِ

                 مال را کو بہر دیں باشد حمول
          نعم مالٌ صالح ٌ گفتش رسول
                 واسطے دین کے ہو اچھا مال قبول
          نعم مال صالح ہے گفت رسول

          It has been narrated in the Hadith:-
          نِعْمَ الْمَالُ الصَّالِحُ لِلرَّجُلِ الصَّالِح

          (Legitimate (hilal) wealth is a blessing for the pious)

          With bonafide possessions a pious person shares them with relative and spent it in service of the religion. But the one possessed with love of wealth will usurp rights of others.
          When the treasures of Persia were brought before Hazrat Omar (RH), he read this verse
          زُیِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ حُبُّ الشَّھَوَاتِ

          and said, “O Allah Almighty! This shows that we have developed love for riches, I pray to You to restrict it within the perimeters of your love and affinity.”
          The worldly attractions which make us negligent of hereafter are like a beautiful snake. Howsoever colourful a snake may be, it is after all poisonous and deadly. A child attracted by the colours of a snake, holds it in his hand little realizing that it is dangerous. Similar is the behavior of most of us. We are attracted to glamour of the world often ignore its pitfalls. It is narrated in the Hadith:-
          لَوْ کَانَتِ الدُّنْیَا تَعْدِلُ عِنْدَاﷲِجَنَا حَ بَعُوْضَۃٍ مَّا سَقیٰ کَافِراً مِّنْھَا شَرْبَۃَ مَآئٍ

          (If worth of the world was equal to wing of a mosquito, Allah Almighty would not grant even a sip of water to the non believers)

          Being worthless, Allah Almighty bestows the worldly riches to those who have earned His wrath. The Prophet (SAW) used an analogy to explain the world:-
          وَمَا لِیَ وَلِلدُّنْیَا اِنَّمَا مَثَلِیْ مِثْلَ رَا کِبٍ اِسْتَظَلَّ بِشَجَرَۃٍ

          (I have no concern with this world, except like a traveler who stops a short while to rest under shade of a tree and then resumes the journey)


          Remember the death often and make no long term plan or hoard things. It is said, موتوا قبل ان تموتو (Die before death), which does not mean to die in the literal sense. What it means is to inculcate in you, the qualities of a dead person. Allah Almighty says:-
          تِلْکَ الدَّارُ الا ٰخِرَۃُ نَجْعَلُھَا لِلَّذِیْنَ لاَ یُرِیْدُوْنَ عُلَوّاً فِی الاَ رْضِ وَلاَ فَساَداً ؕ وَالْعَاقِبَۃُ لِلْمُتَّقِیْنَ

          (Rewards of the hereafter are for those who do not desire status or create mischief in the world. The good end is for the pious alone)

          The holy Prophet (SAW) said:-
          مَا ذِئبَانِ جَآئِعَانِ اُرْسِلاَ فِیْ غَنَمٍ بِاَفْسَدَلَھَا مِنْ حِرْصِ الْمَرْئِ عَلَی الْمَالِ وَالشَّرْفِ لِدِیْنِہٰ

          (Two hungry wolves left into a herd of sheep will not damage it as much as the love of status and wealth damage the faith, dean) Al Trimzi

    • Love for Status

        1. Essence

          To expect respect and honour from others is the crux of love for status.


          It is difficult to identify and diagnose this spiritual ill. One only learns about it when an incidence takes place that the realization dawns. It is a kind of illusion which is solely based on the impression of others. The moment the impression changes the whole gambit is shattered into pieces. To be respected is not bad. There are many people who hold themselves in very low esteem but Allah Almighty makes them respected and revered by others. Status becomes despicable when its quest ignores the Divine commands. Its religious pit fall is that one develops pride and conceit which ultimately makes him/her oblivious. The worldly ramification is that it breads jealousy. So a man desiring recognition suffers at both ends. A stature granted by Allah Almighty is certainly a blessing provided one does not consider deserving it because of personal excellence. Like the wealth, status is necessary to provide security and freedom to a person to be able to worship without fear. A prayer is narrated in the books of Hadith:-
          اللّٰھم اجعل فی عینی صغیراً و فی اعین الناس کبیراً

          (May Allah Almighty belittle me in my own eyes but elevate me in the eyes of others)

          This is the status that should be desired. Being low in one’s own esteem compensates for reverence by the others. Status bestowed by Allah Almighty where one acts strictly according to Sharia is a Divine blessing. Otherwise in any other form it a trial which can turn into a misfortune. There are two forms of desire to subjugate others. First form is, with a view to benefit others through obedience like a just ruler, a considerate teacher or a spiritual guide. This is permissible and at times is necessary. Its undesired form is the urge to satiate personal ego.


          There is no point in achieving something which is transitional and not long lasting. Best is to seek a long lasting position in the hereafter by total submission to the will of Allah Almighty. The way to do so is to be humble, be mindful of own weaknesses and accept positive criticism. Consciousness of the temporary nature of worldly adoration and status can be rewarding.
    • Love of Desires and Lasciviousness
        1. The term desire is being used in a broader sense to cover all the worldly pleasures including lust and sexual interest. Our self (naf’s) is basically lustful and wants to accumulate all the worldly pleasures irrespective of how they are obtained. Desire is a temporary emotion which later makes one repent after a sin has been committed. A self (naf’s) used to pleasures of life finds it hard to quit them. The demands keep increasing and pleasures grow insatiable turning a man into a devilish rascal. Perversion grows beyond limits and unscrupulous acts become an ordinary routine. One should be grateful to Allah Almighty if like the grant of desirable stature, rightful means are bestowed to satisfy these urges. It is not desirable to completely abstain from the pleasures of life provided these don’t result in the disobedience of the Divine commands. While fasting one is made to stay away from pleasure but as soon as the time is over, it is desired to break the fast quickly. Pleasures of Eid and marriage feast have been allowed. Marriage with an unblemished virgin, and keeping up to four wives have been permitted in order to rightfully satiate the natural human desires. Islam advocates a mid course. Religious seclusion (to be a hermit) or a free for all approach has not been allowed. Salvation lies in the mid course which was determined through the Divine revelation to the holy Prophet (SAW).


          The cure lies in abstaining from fulfillment of desires through fasting and adhering to limits and bounds set in the Sharia e.g. keeping eyes low and not eve gaze etc. Remembrance of death and staying away from gatherings inciting lust, are effective preventions. One must always mistrust his/her self (naf’s). Just think that Allah Almighty is watching you and you may die pursuing desires, then what will happen? Some die or are killed in such circumstances that they lose both this world and life hereafter. So the best is to stay away from insatiable desires.
    • Love of Wealth/Riches
        1. Love to accumulate wealth is also a serious spiritual ailment. The desire sometime becomes so overbearing that one is prepared to sacrifice honour, rest or any other dear thing. Self (naf’s) encourages one to gather riches for its worldly benefits. To test that whether one is in love with wealth is simple. When spending for humanity and in the name of Allah Almighty is not mentally cumbersome then one is not in love with wealth. Frugality is also a spinoff of the love for wealth.


          A person is said to be in love with wealth, when he/she loses all sense to acquire it through right or wrong means (By hook or crook).


          The best cure is to spend wealth for a good cause against wishes of the self. At least, obligatory alms (zakat) and charity (sadqat) should be regularly paid. Some time feasting pious people is also useful to eradicate the ill.
    • Greed/Avarice
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَلاَ تَمُدَّنَّ عَیْنَیْکَ اِلیٰ مَا مَتَّعْنَا بِہٰ ٓ اَزْوَاجاً مِّنْھُم زَھْرَۃَالْحَیوٰۃِ الدُّ نْیَا

          (Don’t be attracted by things given to groups of the non believers as bounties of the world)

          The holy Prophet (SAW) said,
          یَھْرُمُ ابْنُ اٰدَمَ وَیَشِیْبُ مِنْہُ اثنَانِ اَلْحِرْصُ عَلیَ الْمَالِ وَالْحِرْصُ عَلیَ الْعُمْرِ

          (With age two things keep increasing, one is greed for life and the other is greed for money)


          Avarice or greed is a dictate of love for this world. One is perpetually involved with personal interests.


          Like the love of this world, greed is a root cause of all spiritual ailments. It could be termed as the mother of all ills. It causes scuffles and strife leading onto cases in the courts of law. Adultery is a manifestation of greed for pleasure. This, in nut shell, is the basic cause of character flaws. Saints have concluded that character flaws stem from pride and arrogance which is greed for stature and recognition. Greed is a natural instinct of human beings. In spite of possessing two forests, where gold and silver flow like water, man will yearn for another one. Greed shall always remain insatiable. Allah Almighty says:-
          اَمْ لِلاِنْسَانِ مَا تَمَنیّ

          (How can greed of man be ever fulfilled?)

          A greedy person is never satisfied and happy because of the insatiable desires. One after another desires keep on mounting. Faith in the destiny disappears and one wants to gain everything. This being not possible the greedy is always worried and unhappy.


          Greed is basically motivated by comfort and pleasure but these still elude a greedy person. So why should one struggle for something that is without comfort and joy. It is better to remain contended with one’s destiny. There is nothing wrong in striving to obtain the necessities of life through fair means. One must work hard but results should be left to Allah Almighty and one should be happy with it. Expenses must be curtailed to obviate need for the extra income. One should not worry about the future. A greedy person is always disgraced. Think about the bounties in the Heavens and contemplate that anything wrongly earned in this world shall debar/disqualify a person from the pleasures of the Paradise. Study the benefits of good deeds to develop longing for them. Enhance love of Allah Almighty and remember death often as it wanes love of pleasures and one is more attracted to hereafter.
                 عشق با مردہ نباشد پائدار
          عشق را با حیُّ و باقیوم دار

          (Mortal love is not eternal, fall in love with Allah Almighty)

    • Lust and Desire
        1. Allah Almighty has declared in the Quran:-
          وَ اَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّہٖ وَ نَہَی النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْہَوٰی ﴿ۙ۴۰﴾ فَاِنَّ الْجَنَّۃَ ہِیَ الْمَاۡوٰی

          (And as for him who dreaded standing before his Lord, and restrained his soul from lust, Verily the Garden! -that shall be his resort) An Naziat – 40, 41

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          فامّا المھلکات فھوی متبع رواہ البیہقی

          (Fatality lies in pursuit of desires)

          Lust is a manifestation of human desires, which can descend to infidelity and polytheism excluding one from Islam. At its lowest ebb, desires can shake one’s state of obedience. Every desire can lead one away from the path of truth and righteousness. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَلاَ تَتَّبِعِ الْھَوَیٰ فَیُضِلَّکَ عَنْ سَبِیْلِ اﷲ

          (Don’t pursue personal desire lest they lead you astray from the path of Allah Almighty)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          وَالْعَاجِزُ مَنْ اَتْبَعَ نَفْسَہُ ھَوٰھَا وَتَمَنّیٰ عَلیَ اﷲ

          (Humble and powerless is the one who follows desires and expects for a reward from Allah Almighty)

          Personal desires are a curse that leads to both religious and worldly losses. Long term benefits are forsaken for fulfillment of the immediate desires. To gain them one is even ready to harm others. Non religious governments are even compelled to frame laws to safeguard interests of the community. Desires left unchecked can harm both the individual and country. Allah Almighty being all wise knows our predicament. So the best is to follow the Divine course and act upon Sharia laws. Allah Almighty says:-
          فاتبعھا و لا تتبع اھوائ الذین لا یعلمون

          (Follow the Sharia and not be misled by ways of the ignorant)

          Most people don’t know what is good or bad for them, so pursuing desires can bring them irrevocable harm. It is better to follow the commands of Allah Almighty, who is our benefactor and is very generous. The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          لا یؤمن احدکم حتی یکون ھواہ تبعاً لما جئت بہ

          (A person cannot be a Muslim till he/she follows what I have for brought from Allah Almighty i.e. Sharia)

          A disease can only be cured by removing the cause and its substance. Any act that is undertaken must conform to the Sharia laws.


          The best cure is to refrain or abstain from desires through spiritual exercises (mujahida). To begin with one may avoid the permissible act to train the self (naf’s) e.g. fasting is a way to train one’s self.
    • Wrath or Anger
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَالْکَاظِمِیْنَ الغَیْظَ وَالْعَافِیْنَ عَن ِالنَّا سِ وَاﷲُ یُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِیْنَ

          (Allah Almighty loves those pious people who control their anger and forgive faults of others)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          لاَ تَغْضَبْ

          (Show no anger)


          Anger is basically the impulse to avenge and exact satisfaction.


          The Prophet (SAW) said,” Strong is not the wrestler who throws down the opponents in the arena and defeats them but it is the person who can keep himself in check when in rage. In another narration it is said,” Strong is one who is the lord of rage.” Never take a prompt action when angry. Wrath should only be used in accordance with the Sharia dictates. Temper is a natural instinct but Allah Almighty has bestowed human beings with the power to control it. Allah Almighty has instilled anger in the human nature by design. It should only be used when necessary. Anger though instinctive is manageable. It can be quit altogether but with effort. It is narrated in Hadith:-
          لاَ یَقْضِیَنَ قاَض بین اثْنَیْنِ وَھُوَ غَضْبَانَ

          (A ruler should never issue a verdict in a state of rage or anger)

          A ruler by implication, here points to people with have command over even two people e.g. a husband or a teacher. No one should hastily punish his children or pupil especially when angry. Allah Almighty stands for a person unable to demand his/her right. A hadiths narrates,” When a tax paying infidel is wronged by a Muslim ruler, Allah Almighty and the Prophet (SAW) shall claim his rights.” A person who cannot control his rage should publically beg for forgiveness of the aggrieved person. This way the self is humbled and desists from repeating the act. Never act or speak hastily. On occurrence of a fault one should repent and beg forgiveness of Allah Almighty. When the wrong committed is beyond limits of Sharia, pardon of the aggrieved should be sought, recite.
          اعوذ باﷲ

          Sit down if standing, lie down when sitting. Drink cold water and perform ablution. Indulge yourself in a permissible activity to digress the mind like reading a book. Incase anger persists even then, get away from the person.


          Remind yourself of the plight, Allah Almighty being much more powerful chooses to act in the same way. One cannot resist His will. Exercising patience at the moment of anger qualifies one for Divine rewards and blessings. So why waste the opportunity to benefit. A hot tempered person when brings in check his/her repeated outburst earns must more rewards then offering Nawafil (voluntary prayer) in thousands. It is a matter of thought and understanding.
    • Lie
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَاجْتَنِبُوْا قَوْلَ الزُّوْرِ

          (…. And refrain from a word of falsehood) Al Hajj – 30

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          عَلَیْکُمْ بِاالصِّدْقِ وَاِیَّاکُمْ وَالْکِذْبَ

          (Always speak the truth and never tell lies)


          To speak an untrue thing is a lie. It is enough to be a liar to pass on what one hears, without a through scrutiny or write something with research.


          The Prophet (SAW) exhorted his followers to avoid telling lies because lie and wickedness shall be together in the Hell. He (SAW) also said that a false testimony is equivalent to thrice the infidelity. In another hadith it has been narrated, the Prophet (SAW) said,” I dreamed a man sitting and another standing beside him with a big pincer tearing apart his jaws till it reached the neck. The jaw is then restored. This was being done repeatedly. I asked Hazrat Jibreal (AS) who replied that this is a liar who will be punished like this till the doom’s day”.
          Episode of this woman is narrated in hadith who called her son promising him something. The Prophet (SAW) inquired from her that if the son obeyed her, would she really give him something. On her replying that she would him a dried date, the Prophet (SAW) said,” It would have been a lie to entice the boy without intending to give anything”.


          Caution must be exercised not to utter a word without due thought. The treatment is to take precautions before time, when its time, have courage to speak the truth and redress when the time is over. Precautions imply the resolve not to speak a lie. Fix signs to remember like tying something with the hand. Control the urge to speak a lie. Tell friends about it, if a lie is uttered. Punish self (naf’s) with something which is disliked by it e.g. offer voluntary prayer (nawafil) or give charity. Repent and beg forgiveness of Allah Almighty, if it infringed on Sharia.
    • Backbiting
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          ولا یغتب بعضکم بعضا

          (No one should backbite or disparage about anyone else)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          الغیبۃ اشد من الزنا

          (Backbiting is worse than adultery)

          Backbiting is a sin related to status and recognition. It breads pride rather than remorse. That is why it is considered worse than adultery.


          To say something disliked by a person in his/her absence despite its existence. In case untrue, it is a calumny and false accusation.


          Like it is forbidden to backbite, it is also prohibited to listen to it. The Prophet (SAW) said,

          ” A person powerful enough must defend his Muslim brother in whose presence he is being belittled. If he/she does so Allah Almighty shall favour him/her in this world in the hereafter or else he/she shall be seized both in the world and hereafter."
          (Shara Alsunat)

          The Prophet (SAW) said,

          " Every one of you is like a mirror for his Muslim brother. Wipe off any blemish that is observed.”

          A mirror only shows the face marks only to the onlooker and doesn’t disclose it to others. Likewise a person with some faults should be quietly counseled rather than disparage him. Backbiting is a major sin of the tongue and ear. One must stay away from it. Pardon of the person must be sought if he learns about it otherwise beg forgiveness from Allah Almighty and pray for the person wronged.


          Before backbiting just pause and thinks that will it annoy Allah Almighty who is all knowing and all seeing. It is a matter of controlling one’s tongue only. A little effort can save one from a major sin. So why not make an attempt? One’s virtues are transferred to the target person. No one wants to benefit a person despised by him, so the best is to pray for him, “May Allah Almighty eradicate his/flaws being all powerful and keep me away from backbiting”. The exercise will ensure that one is not lured by the devil into backbiting.
    • Jealousy and Malice
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَمِنْ شَرِّ حَا سِدٍ اِذَا حَسَدْ

          (And from the evil of an envier when he envies) Al Falaq - 5

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-

          “Don’t be jealous of each other”.


          To dislike, well being of others and wish it to end.


          Three things are associated with jealousy. One is the instinctive reaction which is beyond human control; the other thing is malice which is a sin and the third is to resist malice which is a virtue. Jealousy springs from pride and arrogance/ haughtiness or meanness and wickedness. A jealous person grudges Allah Almighty for bestowing His blessings on others. He wants them to be deprived. However, desiring something for himself legitimately; which the others have is called envy, which is allowed by the Sharia. Jealousy is an ailment of the heart which adversely affects both the worldly and religious matters. Good deeds are forfeited and virtues are rejected. The Prophet (SAW) said,” Jealousy eats away virtues like fire burns the dried wood.”
          In the life herein, a jealous person is always sad and uneasy worrying over the well being of others, plotting to make them poor and miserable.


          Praise the person that one is jealous off and look after him. Think that, what would Allah Almighty feel being jealous of the bounties bestowed by Him to someone. In a way, this amounts to objecting to the Divinity. Pray for the person being jealous of and beseech Allah Almighty for the same bounties provided these are permissible.
    • Avarice or Stinginess
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَمَنْ یَّبْخَلْ فَاِنَّمَا یَبْخَلُ عَنْ نَفْسِہ

          (…And he who withholds in miserliness withholds against himself) Muhammad - 38

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          وَالْبَخِیْلُ بَعِیْدٌمِّنَ اﷲِ بَعِیْدٌ مِّنَ الجَنَّۃِ بَعِیْدٌ مِّنَ النَّاسِ قَرِیْبٌمِّنَ النَّارِ

          (A miser is away from Allah Almighty, away from the Paradise, away from people but nearer to the Hell)


          To be stingy in spending; what is essential to needs and Sharia.


          Misery has two variants. One which does not conform to the Sharia is sinful and the other may not be in line with cultural norms but is not a sin. The needs arising unexpectedly have to be met. It is narrated in the Hadith that anything spent to protect one’s honour is a charity. For example knowing well that a poet or a conjurer may bring disrepute to him if not paid or else he will be branded a miser, a person still does not oblige to protect his honour. The Prophet (SAW) said,” Protect yourself from avarice; it had killed nations in the past.” It is not worthy of a Muslim to be miser. Avarice is actually the love for wealth which attracts one to the world, weaning his/her love of Allah Almighty. A miser at the death bed looking at the accumulated riches departs with a heavy heart. He/she is not happy and looking forward to be blessed with meeting Allah Almighty. A hadiths narrates that a person not happy to meet Allah Almighty on demise shall land in the Hell.


          Love of riches can be eliminated with frequent remembrance of death. One should read and hear about the rewards of spending in the way of Allah Almighty. It is advisable to feast relatives and friends or spend money in any other bonafide way.
    • Pretence or Hypocrisy
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          یُرَ آ ئُوْ نَ النَّا سَ

          (They show off or pretend)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          اَنَّ یَسِیْرالرِّیَآ ئِ شِرْکٌ

          (Even a bit of pretence is infidelity)


          Despite obeying Allah Almighty, be conscious of likes and dislikes of people.


          Seeking respect and revered status amongst people for worship and noble deeds is hypocrisy. It contravenes worship which should be purely for Allah Almighty. The moment someone else also considered, it turns into the minor form of infidelity. The holy Quran states:-
          فَمَنْ کَانَ یَرْجُوْ لِقَائَ رَبِّہٖ فَلْیَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا یُشْرِکْ بِعِبَادَۃِ رَبِّہِ اَحَدًا

          (So the one who hopes to meet his Lord must do righteous deed and must not associate anyone in the worship of his Lord) Al Kahf – 110

          Commentators of the Quran have explained the last part of the verse to relate to pretence. Qazi Sana Ullah Pantipati writes,

          ” One’s deeds should never be for pretence nor should the reward or praise be expected from someone else than Allah Almighty”.

          It is narrated in hadiths that on the Day of Judgment, while rewarding and punishing people Allah Almighty shall tell the hypocrites to go and seek reward of their worship and deeds from those for whom these were meant. In another lengthy version it is stated that on the Day of Judgment when martyrs, scholars and generous people will describe their deeds before Allah Almighty. They shall be told that their deeds were basically for being admired by people. Having attained their worldly aims they had forfeited their rights of hereafter. They shall then be sent to the Hell.
          The Prophet (SAW) had said that deeds of a person with even a bit of pretence shall not be accepted by Allah Almighty. One must pay serious heed to this saying. No act should either be exhibited or hidden, but just done in a normal way. Every act should be consciously directed to please Allah Almighty and not to seek admiration of others. Never bother about temptations. Always perform a deed with good and pure intentions. Pretence is a voluntary act, one deliberately doing is indulges in sins otherwise for mere temptation to do so, one is not held responsible.


          Love for status is the cause for pretence and hypocrisy. The best is to worship alone except the obligatory congregational prayers. A worship where pretence is feared should be done so frequently that it should become an unnoticeable routine. After a few days this shall transform from pretence to a habit and with time turn into sincere worship.
    • Conceit
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          اِذْ اَعْجَبَتْکُمْ کَثْرَتُکُمْ

          (….Behold! your great numbers elated you) Al Tauba -25

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          وَاَمَّا ا لْمُھْلِکَاتُ فَھَو یً مُتَّبَعٌ وَ شُحٌّ مُطَاعٌ وَاِعْجَابُ الْمَرْئِ بِنَفْسِہٰ وَھِیَ اَشَدُّھُنَّ

          (Damaging are the desires that are followed, stinginess and worst of all is conceit when one think himself to be good and best of all.)


          To associate an excellence to self without fearing that it can be forfeited.


          Conceit is a desire of the self (naf’s) to be distinguished. The moment a person is attracted to himself, he becomes undesirable to Allah Almighty. However an ability or quality seen as a blessing of Allah Almighty and feared that it can be forfeited is not conceit. A self loving person considers these as his/her right and fails to associate these blessings to Allah Almighty. This vice is almost like pride and arrogance except that one doesn’t belittle others.

          A hadiths narrates that a conceited person who walks proudly shall on the Day of Judgment shall meet Allah Almighty in his wrath. (Masnad Ahmad)


          An ability or skill gained should be considered as a blessing of Allah Almighty which could be usurped. One must always keep an eye on internal and external failings and shortcomings to avoid presumption of perfection. Unlike the Devil who was not in love with Allah Almighty and associated all abilities to himself, one should develop love for Allah Almighty. A lover is lost in his beloved and associates all goods to Him. Thus a quality of excellence becomes a mean to reach his/her beloved i.e. Allah Almighty.
    • Self Adoration
        1. A person suffers from self adoration when hearing of a virtue, he thinks to possess it. Because of this vice one doesn’t see the good in others and bad in himself. He is totally engrossed in himself and indulges in self praise. Rather than praising good deeds of others, he contrives to bring up a personal virtue or ability, real or concocted, so that he is praised instead. The spiritual ailment prevents a person from self rectification because one assumes to be perfect. This is worse than conceit because one sees his/her vices as virtues. Self adoration and conceit are like mirages which preclude development of love Allah Almighty and recognition of His greatness. An affected person should try to gain love of Allah Almighty without further delay. He must get the company of the pious people. The best for him is to find a spiritual guide. An effective curative exercise (mujahida) is to imagine that he is being presented before Allah Almighty with all his deeds. He finds that his deficient deeds call for mercy and forgiveness. So in the remaining years of his life, he will endeavour for self rectification. This exercise helps in sincere repentance.
          A disciple of Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (RA) once wrote to him for advice as he had ceased to notice his vices. Hazrat suggested the above spiritual exercise to him. After some time the disciple wrote back,” I feel corrected now and find no deed presentable enough. My heart is like a decorated box full of excrement and filth. He was advised to continue with the exercise and use the filth as manure to grow spiritual flowers and fruit.
    • Pride And Arrogance
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          اِنَّہُ لاَ یُحِبُّ المُسْتَکْبِرِیْنَ

          (Allah Almighty does not like the proud and arrogant people)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          لاَیَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّۃَ اَحَدٌ فِیْ قَلْبِہٰ مِثْقَالُ حَبَّۃٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ مِّن کِبْرٍ

          (A person with even a bit of pride shall not enter the Heavens)


          To consider his/her abilities to be the most exalted or look down upon others.


          Pride has many forms; some of which are very intricate and concealed. Only an experienced spiritual guide can detect them. Even the religious scholars have to follow the findings of a researcher. In nut shell, a proud person considers himself to be better than others and looks at them with contempt which is forbidden being a sin. An involuntary thought of pride with all the ingredients is not sinful provided it is not sustained and believed otherwise it will turn into pride and become punishable. Considering others to be small without contempt is not arrogance e.g. an elder treating a child as small without contempt is not haughtiness.
          A proud person willfully considers himself to better than others and shows it through contempt, anger, arrogance and looking down upon others. Pride leads to infidelity. The Devil was led astray because of his pride and arrogance. Allah Almighty says, “An arrogant person shall land in the worst place (Hell). Pride is my domain; anyone trying to share it shall be executed”. The Prophet (SAW) exhorted to stay away from pride. This is the sin that condemned the Devil. Arrogant shall be placed in the boxes of fire. A person with a bit of pride shall not be allowed in the Paradise.


          Always keep in mind the magnificence of Allah Almighty so that your abilities dwarfs in front of it. Respect and be hospitable to a person that you consider below you. Acknowledge that all of your qualities and skills are a Divine blessing which can be usurped in a jiffy. When deeds of others appear lower than yours; consider that success in hereafter is not depended on deeds but benevolence of Allah Almighty. Remember that like fire can burn everything, arrogance and pride can quash all good deeds. Though little in numbers, virtues of others may become acceptable because of their humility. Also think that end being unknown can be good or bad for anyone of us.
    • Jealousy And Grudge
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          خُذِالعَفْوَ وَئا مُرْ بِا الْعُرْفِ وَاَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْجَاھِلِیْنَ

          (Adapt forgiveness, order virtues and turn away from the ignorant)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          وَلاَ تَبَا غَضُوْا

          (Don’t hold grudge against each other)


          In the state of wrath when one is unable to take revenge, malice develops and one holds a grudge to inflict injury, harm or suffering on the other.


          Many ills germinate out of grudge. One keeps brooding with anger and ill will persists. A grudge is to deliberately harbor ill will against someone and contrive to inflict harm. However, in response to an offence, one does not feel like meeting him/her; it is not grudge but a natural reaction. The Prophet (SAW) said that a person who keeps a grudge shall not be pardoned. On Mondays and Thursdays, when deed list of individuals is presented before Allah Almighty, He pardons all those who repent except those who harbor a grudge. Two people with enmity and grudge against each other are also not forgiven by Allah Almighty. Enmity to safeguard religion or with opponents of Allah Almighty is commendable. It is narrated in Hadith:-
          اَلْحُبُّ ﷲ ِ وَالْبُغْضُ ﷲِ


          A grudge must be forgiven and commence social interaction with the one against whom a grudge is held. Wrath is a significant part of grudge. The only difference being that whereas wrath is an impulsive reaction not based on thought; a grudge is long term and involves planned reactive moves and malice. Thus grudge is a worse ailment than anger. One must contemplate that what if Allah Almighty holds him/her responsible for shortcomings and does not pardon them? Therefore one must be forgiving to others so Allah Almighty forgives him/her. A hadiths narrates,” If you are merciful to those on the Earth, Allah Almighty shall be merciful to you.
    • Unity Of Allah Almighty (Tauhid)
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَاﷲ خَلَقَکُمْ وَمَا تَعْمَلُوْن

          (Allah Almighty created you and your actions/deeds)

          وَمَا تَشَآوئُ نَ اِلاَّ اَنْ یَّشَآئَ اﷲُ

          (Your wishing is immaterial till Allah Almighty wills)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          وَاعْلَمْ اَنَّ الاُ مَّۃَ لَوْ اجْتَمَعَتْ عَلیٰ اَن یَّنْفَعُوْکَ لَمْ یَنْفَعُوْکَ اِلاِّ بِشَیئٍ قَدْ کَتَبَ اﷲُ لَکَ وَ لَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلیٰ اَن یَضُرُّوْک َ لَمْ یَضُرُّوْکَ اِلاَّ بِشَیئٍ قَدْ کَتَبَ اﷲُ عَلَیْکَ

          (Be ware that if they all unite to benefit you; you shall only get what Allah Almighty has destined for you. And if they collect to harm you; no harm will come to you except what Allah Almighty wills)

          What is Oneness of Allah Almighty?

          To believe that nothing happens unless Allah Almighty wills it to happen. It certainly does not mean that no one else exists as popularly believed by those who subscribe to the concept of ‘Wahdat ul Wajud’. Allah Almighty has to be believed with all His attributes. One of His attributes is ‘The Creator’. Without creations one cannot be a creator? Therefore one has to believe in all the creations of Allah Almighty. It is a different matter that a person reaches a level of awareness and trance that others become insignificant; like in the presence of the Sun, stars become invisible. This is the concept of ‘Wahdat ul Shahud’. Unity of Allah Almighty must never be used a pretext to insult the revered personalities. Infidelity is the antonym of unity of Allah Almighty; a crime that shall never be pardoned. Those exalted people who are honoured by Allah Almighty, like prophets (AS) or their followers should never be ridiculed, else one is likely lose all his/her virtues. Allah Almighty is very touchy about insulting His beloved people. Those doing so are eternally rejected and condemned with all their virtues forfieted. Allah Almighty says, “Anyone hurting my friends is on war with Me.” Neither should one indulge in infidelity in the garb of respect nor disrespect or irreverence be displayed.

          How to acquire it

          Think about the insignificance of creations and omnipotence of the Creator, Allah Almighty. Sura Al Fatiha has spelled out the best way to safeguard against infidelity:-
          ا ِیَّاکَ نَعْبُدُ وَ اِیَّاکَ نَسْتَعِیۡنُ

          (You alone do we worship, and from You alone do we seek help)

          The other verse guides us on how to avoid disrespect:-
          صِرَاطَ الَّذِیۡنَ اَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَیۡہِم

          (The path of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace)

          Guidance lies in acting upon both the verses together. Shrinking from either of them is depravity and invitation to the wrath of Allah Almighty.
    • Sincerity
        1. Sincerity is an outcome of the belief in oneness of Allah Almighty (tauhid). A true believer will be sincere as well. Allah Almighty desires sincerity.
          وَمَآ اُمِروآ اِلاِّ لِیَعْبُدُواﷲَ مُخْلِصِیْنَ لَہُ الدِّ یْنَ حُنَفَآئَ

          (They were ordained only to worship Allah Almighty with sincerely adhering to His de’an with total concentration)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          اِنَّ اﷲَ لاَ یَنْظُرُ اِلیٰ صُوَرِکُمْ وَاَمْوَالِکُمْ وَلٰکِن یَّنْظُرُ اِلیٰ نِیَّاتِکُمْ وَاَعْمَالِکُمْ

          (Allah Almighty does not look at your faces or riches but your intents and actions)

          Essence of Sincerity

          Seeking pleasure of Allah Almighty only while submitting to Him totally, with disregard to personal interests and pleasure of others, is sincerity. This is opposite or antonym of pretence and hypocrisy. At times an action is taken not to please Allah Almighty or others but only in self interest. Although it is not a sinful, but shall yield no dividends for the hereafter e.g. growing a beard to look smart. A religious act to please others is pretence which can lead one into the Hell.


          Sincerity is linked to intention, so with right intentions one can gain this trait. Every effort should be made to keep away from pretence. The vice enters a person surreptitiously so only a spiritual guide can cure it. Therefore keeping company of the pious people is essential to acquire the trait.

          Benefits of Sincerity

          Any good deed big or small but performed with sincerity has blessings of Allah Almighty. Enhanced sincerity begets more rewards. It is narrated in hadiths, the Prophet (SAW) said, “My companion (RH) spending half a kilogram in the way of Allah Almighty is better than others who may spend gold half the size of the Uhad Mountain.” Reason is, that sincerity of the Companions (RH) of the Prophet (SAW) was far greater than others yielding them matchless rewards and benefits. Highest degree of sincerity is that all actions should be done to only please Allah Almighty with total disregard to others. Next is to seek pleasure of the humanity as well without worldly advantage or benefits. The lowest degree of sincerity is to perform acts empty minded with no religious or worldly considerations.

          An Important Thing to Note

          Sincerity alone shall not be sufficient to ensure deliverance on the Day of Judgment. Ways of the Prophet (SAW) i.e. his Sunnah have to be adopted and practiced. A prayer offered with sincerity but with reduced rakkahs is not acceptable not being in consonance with Sharia. At this point, it is essential to know the difference between Sunnah and Biddah (heretic departures). Mostly the departures are made with sincerity and considering them to be in accordance with the religion. Notwithstanding the intentions one must remember what the holy Prophet (SAW) said, “Every departure (Biddah) takes you astray.” It is essential to learn and then act on Sharia sincerely. Laxity in anyone of these can lead to damage. One must take cognizance of his/her knowledge and convictions to ensure that true Sharia is being pursued.
          The sincere followers are led on the true path by Allah Almighty. A sincere person found to be indulging in Biddah or ignorance should be politely explained the way of the Prophet (SAW) rather than being harsh to him/her. A sincere person will readily accept it. This is a manifestation of the hadiths that Allah Almighty doesn’t watch our faces and actions but our intentions and deeds. Right intention and good deeds are thus essential for salvation. Sincerity is not only essential for acceptability but rewards are also bestowed accordingly. More sincere are entitled to higher rewards.
    • Repentance/Penitence
        1. We are all servants of Allah Almighty. It is obligatory for us to worship Him. When led astray because of a laxity, mischief of our self or be fooled by the Devil one tends to drift away. One still has an option to please Allah Almighty and restore the connection. To do so one must cry, accept his/her mistake and beg forgiveness.
          Allah Almighty says:-
          یَآاَیُّھَا الِّذِیْنَ اٰ مَنُوْا تُوْ بُوْآ اِلیَ اﷲِ تَوْبَۃً نَّصُوْحاً

          (Oh! Those who truly believe, sincerely repent before Allah Almighty)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          یَآیُّھَا النَّاسُ تُو بُوْآ اِلیَ اﷲِ

          (Folks! Repent sincerely before Allah Almighty)


          To regret a mistake, abandon the sin and have a firm resolve not to repeat it and to check the self (naf’s) at the time of urge/desire, is repentance.


          The word ‘Tauba’ in Arabic means to come nearer or to return/approach. It too has a beginning and an end. The beginning is that one’s heart is lighted with Divine splendor and understands that sin is fatal. Then overwhelmed with fear and repentance one quits the sin with the firm resolve never to repeat it again. When this thought transcends over all times (past, present and future), one then arrives at the pinnacle which is the ultimate form of repentance.

          Need to Repent

          After understanding the essence of penitence, it is evident that it is an obligatory action. Allah Almighty has exhorted the believers to repent with sincerity. It is stated in the holy Quran:-
          فَمَنْ تَابَ مِنْ بَعْدِ ظُلْمِہٰ وَاَصْلَحَ فَاِنِّ اﷲَ یَتُوْبُ عَلَیْہٰ

          (Except those who repent before you overpower them. Then, be sure that Allah is Most-Forgiving, Very-Merciful) Al Maida – 34

          In this verse, it is implied that Allah Almighty assures that anyone who repents after committing a sin and resolves to follow the Sharia in future is forgiven (all the past sins) and helped in his/her resolve.
          A hadiths narrates; Allah Almighty has said that a person begging forgiveness is pardoned irrespective of magnitude of sins which may even equal the earth and the sky. In another hadiths it is narrated:-
          اَلتّآئِبُ مِنَ الذَّنْبِ کَمَنْ لاَّ ذَنْبَ لَہُ

          (One repenting from sins is like a person who has never committed a sin)

          The Prophet (SAW) had also said:-
          اِنّیِ لَاَسْتَغْفِرُاﷲَ فِیْ کُلِّ یَوْمٍ سَبْعِیْنَ مَرَّۃً

          (I repent seventy times a day)

          It is an established fact that all the prophets (AS) are beyond sinning. Yet our holy Prophet (SAW) is repenting. Where do the ordinary mortals like us stand and figure. One must always resort to sincere penitence without fearing an involuntary repetition of the sin.
                 باز آ باز آ ہر آنچہ ہستی باز آ
          گر کافر و گبر و بت پرستی باز آ
                 ایں در گہ ما در گہ نو میدی نیست
          صد بار اگر توبہ شکستی باز آ

          (Oh! My servant stay away, stays away from infidelity and sins. There is no despair at my door step, stay away even if you have to repent hundred times)

          Method of Penitence

        2. Repent for the past sin with regret. Determine to pay back the rights of others, make arrangements to pay back or seek their forgiveness.
        3. If the sin is committed again, offer two rakkah of ‘Tauba Prayer’ and beg forgiveness of Allah Almighty with remorse.
        4. During repentance, remind yourself of the sin but then try and forget it with the confidence that it has been forgiven. Repetition creates a veil with Allah Almighty which can hinder the love and growth. It also reduces the Divine rewards. In case one cannot forget his/her sins then repeat penitence and forget about the sin. More than this will amount to exaggeration.
        5. While repenting it is not necessary to list down all the sins. Frame your penitence broadly with a balance.

        6. It is narrated in hadiths,
          وَمَآ اَنْتَ اَعْلَمُ بِہٰ مِنِّیْ

          (I repent from the sin that You know better)

          The holy Prophet (SAW) also prayed,
          وَ اَتُوْبُ اِلَیْہٰ مِنَ الذَّ نْبِ الَّذِیْٓ اَعْلَمُ وَمِنَ الذَّ نْبِ الَّذِیْ لآ اَعْلَمُ

          (I beg Your forgiveness from the sin that I know and also from the one I don’t know)

          All sins have been included in this prayer including those which one may not remember. Time should not be wasted in eliciting each wrong doing because this can diffuse attention. An overall repentance is just sufficient. Aim of penitence is to remember Allah Almighty and not to recount one’s sin or acts of submission. Sins are only recounted to beg forgiveness and not to seek pleasure by remembering them deliberately. Anyhow if one is still reminded of them, one should beg forgiveness again. It is narrated in the hadiths to recite ‘Inalillah’ when confronted with trouble. Sheikh Akbar has quoted, not to remember sins for pleasure because it leads to the thought of alienation of Allah Almighty which is a dangerous thought.

          Stimulant for Penitence

          All the warnings stated in the Quran and in the books of Hadith should be remembered. One must contemplate that he/she shall to account for all sins before Allah Almighty, one day. Compare your defiance with the blessings and bounties of Allah Almighty. It is so mean on our part to defy our Lord, who forbids us from sinning for our own good. We take the risk of annoying Him for the sake of Devil, who is condemned loser. This thought can yield remorse and repentance which is penitence.
    • Love of Allah Almighty
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          یُحِبُّھُمْ وَیُحِبُّونَہُ

          (Allah Almighty is friendly to those who befriend Him) Al Maeda -54
          وَالَّذِیْنَ اٰمَنُوْآ اَشَدُّ حُبًّا ﷲ

          (But those who believe are stronger in love for Allah Almighty) Al Baqra – 165

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          مَنْ اَحَبَّ لِقَآ ئَ اﷲِ اَحَبَّ اﷲُ لِقَا ئَہُ وَمَنْ کَرِہَ لِقَآئَ اﷲِ کَرِہَ اﷲُ لِقَآئَہُ

          (Allah Almighty likes to meet those who wish to meet Him and hates to meet those who avoid meeting Him)

          Essence of Love

          Inclination towards something that gives pleasure is love when it transcends to passion it is adoration (ishq).


          Love is of two types, one is instinctive and other based on intellect (Wisdom and deliberate thought). Instinctive love is involuntary, so it may not be long lasting. It is based on passions so it can dilute as the desires wane. Whereas love based on intellect is not instinctive, it has to be acquired, thus it is more stable and long lasting. This is the preferable form of love.

          Motives of Love

          There are three motives of love. Firstly, it is initiated in response to a favour. Secondly, it is based on physical attraction like beauty or some other form of excellence, skill, capability or attribute.
          Allah Almighty is par excellence in beauty and traits. He is also the one Who can bestow favours and rewards. So loving Allah Almighty is perpetual in nature as His attributes are everlasting. The perfect and pious people only love Allah Almighty. Possibility of physical attraction and love to someone other than Allah Almighty cannot be ruled out because His love is not physical but spiritual. Physical or instinctive love is no where mentioned in advices. The only love mentioned is spiritual love only which is the desirable form. Side by side, physical love exists but is not overwhelming in comparison. The perfectionists at times harbor both types of love but their spiritual love is overpowering. They keep their instinctive love suppressed. Only the imperfect are swayed by their physical love. Quality to love though desirable is not the ultimate quest. Anyone devoid of love is, however, in a precarious situation. Love of Allah Almighty is essential because mere submission and worship are not sufficient.

          How To Acquire Love of Allah Almighty

          Think about attributes of Allah Almighty and His rewards and blessings. Abide by the laws of Sharia. Replace love of Allah Almighty with love of others by remembering Him frequently. Adherence to Sunnah leads to the Divine love as Allah Almighty says:-
          قُلْ اِنۡ كُنۡتُمْ تُحِبُّوۡنَ اللہَ فَاتَّبِعُوۡنِیۡ یُحْبِبْكُمُ اللہُ

          (Say (O Prophet): "If you really love Allah, then follow me, and Allah shall love you") Ale Emran – 31

          Those seeking the Divine love are advised to abide by the Sharia and they shall be loved.
          Hazrat Ashraf Ali Thanvi (RA) once told the audience, in order to succeed; one must drink the potion of love from its shops. Those who associate with the pious can get love of Allah Almighty through them. Love is a force which stimulates actions. Love and actions are combined in spiritualism to gain success. A train is standing on a track without steam. This train cannot be pushed for long without steam. In this analogy railway line is Sharia, the wheels are means and steam is love. Steam can aid the means to traverse the distance. So long as the train is on the track it shall reach the destination otherwise a fatal accident will occur. One possessed with love but not following the Sharia will go astray on a catastrophic path. Love diminishes misgivings and one gets engrossed in the love of his beloved.

          Ways To Beget Spiritual Love

          Whereas instinctive love is involuntary, one has an option to seek the spiritual love by choice. Effort should be made to acquire spiritual love because involuntary things are troublesome. At times, spiritual love is transformed into instinctive love or is so overwhelming that it feels like the instinctive love. Hazrat Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangovi (RA) had said that anything is possible in instinctive love but there is no control or prohibition in it. In the grip of love, some people do certain things which are not permitted by the Sharia. These people are treated as incapacitated and ignored; so that neither the religion is maligned or pious are ridiculed. To gain spiritual love, one must attend the company of the pious people and read /listen to their tales in their absence. Remembrance of Allah (Zik’r), meditation and ‘shaugal’ are also practiced. This way worldly love is replaced with love for Allah Almighty. To remember Allah Almighty (zik’r) imagining that He loves him/her are very useful. A convenient but permissible act is a way forward in the love of Allah Almighty. Knowledge of Sharia is essential for a seeker of the Divine love.
                درکفے جام شریعت در کفے سندان عش
          ہر ہوسناکے نداند جام و سندان باختن

    • Eagerness/Avidity
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          مَنْ کَانَ یَرْجُوْا لِقَآئَ اﷲِ فَاِنَّ اَجَلَ اﷲِ لَاٰتٍ

          (One eager to meet Allah Almighty should know that the time ordained (death) is forthcoming)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          اَسْئَلُکَ النَّظْرَ اِلیٰ وَجْھِکَ وَالشَّوْقَ اِلیٰ لِقَآئِکَ

          (I beseech the glimpse of Your face and eagerness to meet you)

          Essence of Avidity

          Restlessness of heart and eagerness of a person longing to obtain a desirable thing or to get closer to the beloved, is called avidity. It is a passion which keeps the lover subdued.


          In the initial stage, love is eagerness that gradually transforms to affection. Conditions of avidity are sporadic, with overpowering expression of passions like crying resorted to often in a state of trance. With maturity love transforms into affection and conditions of avidity settle down. People start to worry then, which is not right because these conditions are not the ultimate aim. The Prophet (SAW) had prescribed a limit of avidity:-
          اَسْئَلُکَ شَوْ قاً اِلیٰ لِقَآئِکَ مِنْ غَیْرِ ضَرَّآئَ مُضِرَّۃٍوَّلاَ فِتْنَۃٍ مُّضِلَّۃٍ

          (Allah Almighty! I beg for eagerness to meet you. Avidity without constraints and dangers and the one that is devoid of misleading/mischievous trials)

          Avidity and overwhelming influence of love can be fatally dangerous because these hamper the prescribed rituals. The real aim is to abide by the rules of Sharia and obey the Divine commands. At times, in a state of trance one is disrespectful which can be harmful. The Prophet (SAW) being a personification of respect, submission and love recited the above prayer.

          Method to gain avidity

          With the love of Allah Almighty, avidity develops automatically because eagerness is essential for love.
    • Affection
        1. Affection is a state of association which is not very pronounced in company but becomes unbearable when away. With passage of time the lover discovers the likes and dislikes of the beloved then avidity turn into affection which is effective and long lasting. In this state, the lover may not apparently appear to be engrossed in his beloved but he is actually meeting the requirements of his beloved. A new lover may be ready to lay down his life but may fail to do what is really desired by his beloved, whereas an affectionate lover will protect his life and use it for his beloved.

          How is Affection Gained?

          When in the tutelage of a perfect teacher, one must obey all his commands, acknowledging him to be a well wisher and conduit to the love of Allah Almighty. Avidity shall gradually turn into affection and mature into love.
    • Fear
        1. Allah Almighty says:-

          (…. But fear Me) Al Baqra -150

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          مَنْ خَافَ اَدْلَجَ وَمَنْ اَدْلَجَ بَلَغَ الْمَنْزِلَ اَلآ اِنَّ سَلْغَۃَاﷲِ غَالِیۃٌ اَلآ اِنَّ سَلْعَۃَاﷲِ الجَنَّۃُ

          (One who fears commences his journey early morning when it is still dark, and who starts early reaches the destination. Hear! That commodity of Allah Almighty is expensive. Hear! That His commodity is the Paradise)

          Essence of Fear

          A distressing emotion aroused by impending danger, evil or pain causing the feeling or condition of being afraid.


          Fear of Divine punishment is the true essence of fear. Every Muslim harbors the fear being desired and ordained. This fear is a stipulation of faith which is called rational fear. When tempted to sin, fearing the Divine warnings and punishments one can resist. This is an obligation being a stimulus to virtues and avoidance of sins. All creators start fearing a person who fears Allah Almighty. In him/her are concentrated the qualities of guidance, benevolence, knowledge and acceptance/submission.
          Allah Almighty has assured that no one shall be subjected to two fears. Anyone fearing Allah Almighty in this abode will be free of fears in the life hereafter. A fearless person in this world shall not be granted peace and tranquility after death. The Prophet (SAW) said,” Every eye will cry on the Day of Judgment except the one that desists from things forbidden by Allah Almighty, one that performed guard duties in the way of Allah Almighty and the one that shed tear as small as head of a fly fearing Allah Almighty. A hadiths in ‘Mishkat Sharif’ adds ,” Allah Almighty forbids fire of the Hell for him/her” Another tradition describes Allah Almighty telling the angles on the Day of Judgment to take him/her out of the Hell, one who feared him anywhere.
          Fearing Allah Almighty is an essential attribute of a Momin (true Muslim) for two reasons. Firstly to keep away from a voluntary sin, and secondly to repent for a sin that may have been committed in ignorance or by mistake. A dacoit keeps away from dacoity fearing punishment. A child doesn’t commit a mischief again fearing to be beaten. People keep away from crimes fearing penalties. A person behaves in company for fear of being ridiculed. Fear is an essential instrument for maintenance of peace and tranquility in a country.
          Another type of fear is that of a lover fearing to offend his beloved. Those who love Allah Almighty are always afraid and apprehensive not to annoy Him. This fear is instinctive like the scare of a snake or a scorpion but spiritual and rational emotion. All the prophets (AS) had it to the maximum degree.

          Our Prophet (SAW) said,
          ” Amongst you I fear Allah Almighty the most.”

          In this world, our scare of things is based on instincts and no pity is expected from them thus magnifying the fear. On the hand, Fear of Allah Almighty is not that severe because of His benevolence and pity.

          How to Gain Fear

          One must continually remind himself of the wrath and punishments of Allah Almighty especially those described in the Quran and Hadiths.
    • Trust & Hope
        1. While it is essential to fear Allah Almighty, we must trust Him and hope for his compassion and mercy. He is Compassionate, One Who covers, Merciful and above all our Lord and Protector. He is the One Who bestows His bounties on us without our deserving them.

          Allah Almighty says:-
          لاَ تَقْنَطُوْا مِنْ رَّحْمَۃِ اﷲ

          (Do not despair of Allah’s mercy. Surely, Allah will forgive all sins) Az Zumar - 53

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          لَوْ یَعْلَمُ الکَافِرُ مَا عِنْدَاﷲِ مِنَ الرَّحْمَۃِ مَا قَنَطَ مِنْ جَنَّتِہٰ اَحَدٌ

          (Even an infidel on knowing the compassion of Allah Almighty will hope for the Paradise)

          Essence of Hope

          Never to be despondent about the compassion of Allah Almighty and keep on doing good deeds hoping that these shall be accepted because of the Divine magnanimity. The Devil is striving hard to make human beings fearless and negligent of Divine commands; to lead them into the Hell. He also is trying to mislead them from the Divine compassion so that they refrain from good deeds. Fearlessness and despondency deprive a person from good deeds.
          When Hazrat Wehshi (RH) remembered the atrocities committed by him, he lost all hope about his salvation. To alley his fears the following verse was revealed:-
          لا تقنطو من رحمۃ اﷲ ان اﷲ یغفر الذنوب جمیعاً

          (O servants of Mine who have acted recklessly against their own selves do not despair of Allah’s mercy. Surely, Allah will forgive all sins. Surely, He is the One who is the Most-Forgiving, the Very-Merciful) Az Zumar - 53

          Encouraged by this verse, he accepted Islam and was elevated to be a companion of the holy Prophet (SAW). When depressed about his/her sins one should hope for the Divine compassion and indulge in good deeds rather than only talking or thinking about it. Faith is balanced midway between fear and hope. The wise and sagacious say that fear should prevail in youth while one should be hopeful in old age. Anyone waiting to enter the Paradise purely on Divine compassion without acting i.e. repentance and virtues is under illusions. How can one harvest without sowing any seeds.

          Way to gain hope

          One should ponder upon boundless compassion and rewards of Allah Almighty. Focus on verses which expound compassion and also act. Learn about the permissible religious concessions and avail them when required.
    • Devotion
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          لِکَیْلاَ تَأسَوا عَلیٰ مَا فَاتَکُمْ وَلاَ تَفْرَحُوْا بِمَآ اٰتَاکُمْ

          (So that you may neither grieve on what has escaped you, nor over-exult on what He has given to you. And Allah does not love any self-admirer, over-proud) Al Hadid - 23

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          اَوّلُ صَلاَ ح ھٰذِہِ الاُمَّۃِ الْیَقِیْنُ وَالزُّھْدُ وَاَوَّلُ فَسَادِھَا الْبُخْلُ وَالاَمَلُ

          (The very first virtue of the Ummah is their faith and devotion and their worst vices are avarice and distant hope)


          While reminiscent of bounties of the hereafter, remaining contented in this world is the essence of devotion.


          Devotion actually is an insight to the bounties of hereafter seen through the heart. Source of this blessing is the knowledge and the Divine splendor which is poured into one’s heart. A vision is bestowed that portrays the world to be nothing more than the wing of a fly. Hereafter is the real abode which is long lasting and forever. On setting of the realization, value of this world is reduced to a tattered cloth as against valuable ornaments. Prize of devotion is contentment only on what is really needed, like a traveler who makes do with the bare essential things. However, devotion is not abstinence or self denial. It is to contend with the essentials rather than being lost in the luxuries of life. Those bestowed from Allah Almighty are His blessings and one must express his/her gratitude for them. Do keep the self (naf’s) comfortable but make it work too.
          مزدور خوش دل کند کارِبیش

          Those attached to Allah Almighty have no value for the worldly objects like silver and gold. The Prophet (SAW) did not prefer this world for his children and the close ones. Things possessed by people are only stocks of this world. To gain solace and satisfaction, one must not pin any hopes on these trivial things.

          How to gain Devotion

          Think about the temporary state of this world and then compare it with the eternal bounties of the life hereafter. Is the world worth losing those permanent rewards? The best is to be content with whatever Allah Almighty has given you here and only try for those unending gifts of the Paradise.
    • Trust in Allah Almighty
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَعَلیَ اﷲِ فَلْیَتَوَکَّلِ الْمُوْمِنُوْنَ

          (It is in Allah alone that the believers must place their trust) Ale Emran - 122

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          وَاِذَا سَئَلْتَ فاسْئَلِ اﷲَ وَاِذَا اسْتَعَنْتَ فَاسْتَعِنْ بِاﷲِ

          (What you ask, only beg from Allah Almighty; when you need help only seek Allah Almighty)

          This narration is an elaboration of the Quranic verse:-
          اِیَّاکَ نَعْبُدُ وَ اِیَّاکَ نَسْتَعِیۡنُ

          (You alone do we worship, and from You alone do we seek help)


          Rather than looking for means only seek the Creator of those means and pin all hopes to him.


          Trust is to formally appoint someone as a caretaker; for jobs that one can’t perform or understand. These are then entrusted to someone to do. After the necessary effort result should be left to Allah Almighty Who only knows what is good for us. Trust has three facets, namely cognizance (maerf’t), state (hala’t) and actions (aama’l).

        2. Cognizance: When oneness of Allah Almighty (tuheed) is fully understood and familiarized then one is blessed with cognizance of Divine attributes. Led away from the rest, one is totally focused towards Allah Almighty. He/she considers Allah Almighty to be most effective while others are redundant.
        3. State: It is complimentary to the first facet. Trust enjoyed is so exhaustive that feeling contented, everything is left to Allah Almighty, ignoring all other means and persons. Any mean that is resorted to is only because of the Divine commands.
        4. Actions: This is the outcome of the second facet. Being totally focused to Allah Almighty who is the creator of all means, one adopts only the permissible means. To ensure the Divine blessings, prayers and good deeds are stipulated and adopted. Work and means are not shrugged except one keeps away from their charms. It is the ignorant who think that trust in Allah Almighty means not do anything, just sit back and watch. Not to get treated when sick or unnecessarily get exposed to dangers is not trust. This attitude is also forbidden in the Sharia. Virtues of trust are stated in the Sharia. So how is it possible that a thing forbidden by it can be advocated for adoption?

        5. Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Sulimani (RA) said that even a child can display trust in Allah Almighty who without owning anything can say that everything is done by Allah Almighty. The real trust is that with banks are full of money and then one is only focused to Allah Almighty for all things.

          How To Gain Trust

          Remember and ponder upon the past successes and promises and rewards of Allah Almighty.
    • Contentment
        1. In the quest for pleasures/delights of life, to stop one’s self (naf’s) from over indulgence is, in essence contentment. Anyone not attracted to pleasures temperamentally is though saved from trials, is also not rewarded. It is only those who despite temptations counsel themselves to ignore the pleasures being temporary which can only accrue trouble. With such rigours, the contentment gained is the desired trait . This is a result of total devotion.
    • Mildness or Clemency
        1. Essence

          Clemency is the opposite of wrath. Not to flare up on something disliked. This is one of the attributes of Allah Almighty who despites our failings keeps his wrath in check. So a mild persons tries to adopt this Divine trait; which desirable.

          How to gain Mildness

          Check rage, and continually think about its cure.
    • Patience
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          یٰآَ یُّھَاالَّذِیْنَ اٰمَنُوْا اصْبِرُوْا

          (Exercise patience, those who believe)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          عَجَباً لِّاَمْرِ المُؤمِنِ تنَّ اَمْرَہُ کُلَّہُ خَیْرٌ وَّلَیْسَ ذَالِکْ لِاَحَدٍ اِلاَّ لِلْمُؤمِنِ اِنْ اَصَابَتْہُ سَرَّآئُ شَکَرَ وَاِنْ اَصَا بَتْہُ ضَرَّآئُ صَبَرَ فَکَاْنَ خَیْراً لَّہُ

          (It is strange that there is good in everything for a true believer; which others don’t have. He/she is grateful in happiness and patient when in trouble; which is goodness)


          Each person has two latent impulses, one that arouses temptations and the other attracts him/her towards religion. Patience lies in subordinating the later over the former.
          حَبْسُ النَّفْسِ عَلیٰ مَا تَکْرَہُ

          Make the self accept what it doesn’t like and not to flare up in rage.


          Patience has three types:-

        2. Patience of Action :To persist on an act and stay firm, like offering prayers and paying obligatory alms and then continue without fail.
        3. Patience during Action :During the performance of actions and rituals remaining focused and avoiding distractions especially during worship.
        4. Patience of Non Action :To stay away and prohibit others from the Divine prohibitions.

        5. Favours & Distress

          Favours are a source of joy which make the provider loveable. Afflictions causing grief and pain provide an opportunity to be patient. Distress is a state not liked by the self (naf’s). It is of two types. The one with increasing grief and torture is a result of vices. In the second type, feeling closer to Allah Almighty, one is elevated in stature and begets the virtues of acceptance and willingness. Those closer to Allah Almighty do feel the pinch of distress but their grief remains in control because of closeness to Allah Almighty. Resultantly many of their sins are pardoned. Sometime Allah Almighty desiring to raise the stature of a devotee puts him/her through afflictions in order to make up the shortfall of virtues/deeds. It is narrated in the Hadith; on the Day of Judgment the sinner seeing the rewards shall wish that were skinned in the world to deserve these bounties. In another Hadith, it is narrated that a person avenging for himself is left by Allah Almighty and the one who is patient, her/his revenge is taken by Allah Almighty himself.

          Allah Almighty says:-
          اِذَآ اَصَا بَتْھُمْ مُّصِیْبَۃٌ قَالُوآ اِنَّا لِلّٰہِ وَ اِنَّآ اِلَیْہِ رَاجِعُوْنَ

          (Who, when a suffering visits them, say: “We certainly belong to Allah, and to Him we are bound to return) Al Baqra - 156

          It means that when in trouble and grief one must recite this verse and imagine he/she is a slave of Allah Almighty; who being the master can do anything that He chooses to do. A servant has to abide by the wishes of the master. Remember your follies in affliction to know the cause of torment. Also remember that Allah Almighty has promised big rewards a grief inflicted. Make no complaints and stay firm. Think of nothing that is against the faith or religion. Never ever think that Allah Almighty is annoyed because this weakens your relationship with Allah Almighty. Think of an affliction as a trial or punishment and its rewards thereof. Sharia also preaches patience in turmoil and grief. Every trouble brings with it many rewards and blessings of both the worlds.

          How To Gain Patience

          Lower the intensity of emotions and desires.
    • Gratitude
        1. Allah Almighty says:-

          (Offer thanks to Me)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          اِنْ اَصَابَتْہُ سَرَّآئُ شَکَر

          (In happiness, a believer expresses gratitude)


          Every benefit is considered as a Divine reward; enhancing affinity towards Allah Almighty and an urge to obey His command wholeheartedly.


          When a benefit is taken as a Divine rewards; two things emerge, one is the gratitude for the Giver and second is obedience. Being grateful one obeys His commands with zeal and exuberance. It is a desirable condition whether voluntary or involuntary. It is earnestly considered a Divine reward leading to joy, chanting of praise of Allah Almighty and to prevent body organs from vices. This is only possible when one becomes cognizant of purpose of creations. Human eye is a blessing which should be used to study Quran, religious books and see the creations on the Earth and in the skies to understand the greatness of Allah Almighty and what He desires from us. One must resist the temptations to watch nudity and stare the women folk. An ear should be only used to listen to what is beneficial for hereafter and nothing that is prohibited. Our tongue should be devoted to remembrance of Allah Almighty, expressing His gratitude rather than cribbing and complaining. No word of compliant should ever be uttered as it is useless and sinful. Every word of gratitude is vitreous provided expressed from the core of heart. Every action has an outer profile with an inside core and spirit. Spirit of gratitude, is an earnest respect and recognition of the Giver. Initial degree of gratitude at the rational level is to recognize that Allah Almighty is the sole benefactor. At the highest level is the expression of this belief in temperament and acts. Sharia should prevail in faith, worships, dealings, etiquettes and sociability.

          How to gain Gratitude

          Recount and attribute every blessing to Allah Almighty. This will leads to affinity and attaining the perfect level of gratitude. Every word of thanks should be uttered through the heart. The moment one recognizes his fragility and weaknesses and that all the qualities, strengths and timings are Divine rewards, and then the feelings of gratitude are ensued. Maulana Raum (RA) said,” Had I been blessed with as many tongues as the hair on my body; to remember Allah Almighty. How would I express my gratitude for this blessing?”

          Benefits of Gratitude

          The biggest advantage of gratitude is that it brings one closer to Allah Almighty because He loves the grateful people and enhances his bounties:-
          لئن شکرتم لازیدنکم

          (Allah is swift at reckoning) Ibraheem – 51

          A saint said that gratitude is like insurance of favours. With the expression of gratitude the ones already granted remain and there are chances of increase in them. One must remain always grateful to Allah Almighty because it can accrue benefits of both the worlds.
    • Truth
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          اِنَّمَا الْمُؤمِنُوْنَ الَّذِیْنَ اٰمَنُوْا بِاﷲِ وَرَسُوْلِہٰ ثُمَّ لَمْ یَرْتَابُوْا وَجَاھَدُوْا بِاَمْوَالِھِمْ وَاَنْفُسِھِمْ فِیْ سَبِیْلِ اﷲِ اُولٰٓئِکَ ھُمَ الصَّادِقُونَ

          (Believers, in fact, are those who believe in Allah and His Messenger, then have no doubt, and struggle, with their riches and their lives, in the way of Allah. Those are the truthful) Al Hujraat - 15

          It is narrated in Hadith:-
          عَنْ عَائشۃِ قَالَتْ سَمِعَ رَسُوْلُ اﷲ صلی اﷲ علیہ والہٰ وسلم اَبِی بَکْر رضی اللہ عنہ وَ ھُوَ یَلْعِنُ بَعُضَ رَقِیقِہ فَالْتَفَتْ الیہ رسول اللہ صلی اﷲ علیہ والہٰ وسلم و قال یا ابا بکر َ لَعَانِین و صدیقین کلا و رب کعبۃ فأعْتَقَ ابو بکر یومَئِذٍ بعض رقیقہ و جائ الیہ فقال لا أعودُ یا رسول اللہَ

          The Prophet (SAW) on hearing Hazrat Abu Bakr (RH) curse his slave said,” I swear by the Lord of Kabbah that Siddique (truthful) cannot be the one to curse someone.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (RH) released many slaves that day and went to the Prophet (SAW) and assured him (SAW) not to repeat the mistake again.


          Should excel in whatever stature he/she is placed and leave no stone unturned.


          Truth means maturity. A perfect saint (Vali e Kamil) is called a siddique because he has reached the level of maturity in his/her actions, words and conditions of ecstasy. In Sharia truth is a major index including ecstatic states, actions and words.
          Truthfulness of words embodies that only truth and no lies are spoken. Such a person is called ‘Sadiq ul Aqwal’. Truth of deeds encompass that all actions are Sharia compliant. Such a person is called, Sadiq ul Ahwal’. Also that all states of ecstasy have a residual effect and it does not wane. A condition acquired once should persist as a permanent state. This is called ‘Tamkeen’.
          A person seeking Divine subordination must attempt to excel in it e.g. prayers should be offered with all the etiquettes and manners both overtly and covertly. In the Sharia, such a prayer is termed as ‘Salat e kamla’.

          How is the Truth Gained

          Truth basically depends on the knowledge of ultimate level of excellence in every word, act and state. To reach the level, one has to know it first. So the best option is to be under the tutelage of a guide. Gradually the level of excellence can be reached by overcoming the short comings. Company and supervision of the truthful (sadqeen) is the best option. The chosen guide should be kept informed of all conditions, acts and ecstatic states. He will then guide the disciple onto the path of excellence. This is the Divine way for guidance for the seekers; who are awarded the ultimate level of truth (Muqam e Sidq) sooner or later.
    • Modesty / Moderation (Twa’zu)
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَعِبَا دُالرَّحْمٰنِ الَّذِیْنَ یَمْشُوْنَ عَلیَ الاَرْضِ ھَوْنا

          (Those are the servants of Rahman, who exhibit tolerance when walking)

          The Prophet (SAW) said that anyone displaying modesty is rewarded with a high stature from Allah Almighty.
                مٹادے اپنی ہستی کو اگر کچھ مرتبہ چاہیے
          کہ دانہ خاک میں مل کر گل و گلزار ہوتاہے

          (Obliterate yourself if a stature is desired, Seed turns into gardens and flowers only when sowed in the soil)


          Before the Divine grandeur, look down upon yourself as weak and powerless,. It is the opposite of pride and arrogance.


          Modesty and moderation does not comprise of self proclamation but it is to remain tolerant on being ridiculed and suppress the emotions of vengeance. The highest level of modesty is to be equally oblivious of praise or ridicule. Temperamentally it is difficult to equate both but where possible one must try to be modest. Modesty forms the basis for unity. Two people who are modest shall always be in harmony.

          Development of Modesty

          An ignorant person cannot perceive the greatness and grandeur of Allah Almighty. He/she considers blessings, faculties and abilities as a personal asset forgetting that these are Divine favours which can be forfeited. Modesty lies in inculcating the habit of self analysis and always keeping in view the greatness of Allah Almighty. It must be understood that whereas arrogance is disliked by Allah Almighty, modesty and humility are liked by Him. Repetitive remembrance of Allah Almighty, remembering death and company of modest people can help in gaining the trait of modesty.
    • Trust (Tafweez)
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَاُفَوِّضُ اَمْرِیْ ٓ اِلیَ اﷲِ۔ اِنَّ اﷲَ بَصِیْرٌ بِا لْعِبَا دِ

          (I trust my affairs with Allah Almighty who is the guardian of all human beings)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          اِذَآ اَصْبَحْتَ فَلاَ تُحَدِّثْ نَفْسَکَ بِا المَسَآئِ وَاِذَا اَمْسَیْتَ فَلاَ تُحَدِّثْ نَفْسَکَ بِا لصَّبَا ح

          (In morning don’t think of the evening and in the evening don’t worry about the morning)


          Entrust yourself to Allah Almighty, without making any suggestions for yourself. One must plan and act but leave the result to Allah Almighty.


          By trust in Allah Almighty, it is not implied that one should quit planning and working. It means that one should be persistently focused on Allah Almighty. Do plan but leave the outcome to Allah Almighty. In the matters where planning is not possible, best is to reconcile to the Divine will. No self suggested methods should be tried, as these can lead to trouble. Actually a self conceived plan can hurt when it back fires. Those closer to Allah Almighty live on submission and his will.
                زندہ کنی عطائے تو وربکشی فدائے تو
          دل شدہ مبتلائے تو ہر چہ کنی رضاء تو

          (Life is Your blessing and in death too I remain devoted. In adoration, I surrender to Your desires)

          Adopt complete devotion and assent to the Divine will. Leave your spiritual training also to the will of Allah Almighty. Accept all awards or losses being lost in the Divine contemplation.

          Method to Gain Trust

          Meditation based on Allah Almighty being all wise and the most Merciful (Hakim and karim). None of His actions is without wisdom and logic. Allah Almighty being kind and merciful does everything for our good. Any untoward thing happening to us is a Divine prerogative; based on His wisdom, with something good in store for us. Initially it needs deliberate effort to reconcile but with passage of time, own contemplations shall be lost in the Divine will. This becomes the nature of pious and those close to Allah Almighty.
    • Acquiescence & Consent
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          رَضِیَ اﷲُعَنْھُمْ وَرَضُوْا عَنْہُ

          (Allah Almighty is pleased with them and they are contented to his will)

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          مِنْ سَعَا دَۃِ ابْنِ اٰ دَمَ رِضَا ہُ بِمَا قَضیٰ اﷲُلَہُ

          (It is an honour for a person to acquiescence to what Allah Almighty has provided to him/her)


          Contend with destiny/fate and making no complaints.


          To contend with fate at times turns so overwhelming that even pain is not felt. When the acquiescence is painless it is innate and natural but when the pain remains then it is a rational consent to the Divine will. The first is a state of mind which is beyond human control but based on rationality, is controllable. Why does a person consent to the Divine will when in trouble and pained. It is because he/she rationally foresees the resultant high rewards. Thus the pain subsides and becomes bearable. To take bitter medicine or go through surgery, advised by a doctor, are painful options. Yet one goes through the procedure to get cured. Later on, one is not only happy with the doctor for telling him what to do but also feels obliged to him. Anyone truly believing that greater rewards are bestowed by Allah Almighty for every pain and distress shall be happy and contented. Anything that is bestowed from Allah Almighty is the best for that moment; one should not ask for something different. Allah Almighty being compassionate knows what is better for us. However, praying to Allah Almighty is not against the spirit of acquiescence. It is in their obedience of the Divine commands; the pious people don’t wish for what is likeable but pray for what thought best for them.

          How to Gain the Trait

          Acquiescence is a manifestation of the Divine love. So nothing more is needed to be done. This trait is automatically gained with the Divine love.
          سر تسلیم خم ہے جو مزاج یار میں آئے

          (My head is bowed to the wishes of my beloved)

    • Self Annihilation (Fann’a)
        1. Essence

          To efface or obliterate one’s self is in essence ‘Fann’a’ (self annihilation). In this state permanent devotion is vested which results in waning of vices and bad deeds and one keeps away from all sins. Love of all but Allah Almighty is expunged from the heart (qal’b). Character failings like greed, distant hopes, pride, self adoration and pretence are completely obliterated.

          How to Gain the Trait

          To condition your mental approach so that all functional links with all other than Allah Almighty are sapped. To gain this state, frequent verbal and quiet zik’r (remembrance of Allah Almighty) and strenuous spiritual exercises have to be performed.

          Fann’a al Fann’a (total self obliteration)

          Some people are so lost in their self adoration that they even forget Allah Almighty. On the other hand, there are those pious ones who are engrossed in Allah Almighty that they don’t even realize the annihilation of their self. They only keep busy in remembering and striving to please Allah Almighty. This state is also termed as immortality (baq’a). This is a state of total extinction of the want of all others but Allah Almighty. Insensibility that existed in the state of non existence (fann’a) also disappears. The pinnacle of this state was displayed by Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RH) at the time of the Prophet’s (SAW) demise. Keeping his wits about, he analyzed the gravity of the situation and therefore the need to accept the Divine command whole heartedly. He recited Quranic verse mentioning demise of the Prophet (SAW) to the Companions (RHs) to console them and ensure that they were not swayed by their emotions of grief. To reach this level of faith, one has to be in love with Allah Almighty only.
          اوست دیوانہ کہ دیوانہ نہ شد

          (He is the devotee, who remains in senses)

    • Supplication (Dau’a)
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          وقاَلَ رَبُّکُمُ ادْعُوْنِی استَجِبْ لَکُمْ ِانَّ الَّذِیْنَ یَسْتَکْبِرُوْنَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِی سَیَدْ خُلُوْنَ جَھَنَمَّ دٰخِرِیْن

          (And your Lord says: "Call on Me; I will answer your (Prayer): But those who are too arrogant to serve Me will surely find themselves in Hell in humiliation!) Ghafir - 60

          Essence of Supplication

          In essence supplication is submission and devotion to Allah Almighty. It is proven through the Quran and Hadith that a prayer made to beg Allah Almighty for anything whether religious or worldly is basically an act of worship. In the Hadith it is narrated that begging Allah Almighty for a broken lace is also permitted. A prayer despite begging worldly things remains worship whereas all other worship cease when done for worldly things.
          A hadith states:-
          مَنْ لَمْ یَسْئَلِ اﷲَ یَغْضَبْ عَلَیْہِ

          Allah Almighty is annoyed with a person who doesn’t beg for His favours. Same is implied in the above verse. Allah Almighty is pleased with a person who continually begs His favours.
          In a supplication, one begs Allah Almighty who omnipotent and most powerful and everyone is subservient to Him. It is logical to pray to the most power for all needs. It is therefore best to beg Him because nothing can succeed without His will. Anyone praying only to Allah Almighty shall always be successful.
          It is a misconception that a prayer may only be restricted to things that are beyond ones control and should be planned for. Everything being in Divine control indicates that supplications are necessary in all matters even those which are uncontrollable.

          Need of Supplications

          Except supplications, all other means are either for worldly needs or to fulfill religious obligations e.g. means of agriculture and business are primarily for worldly gains with reward in the hereafter if done with good intentions. Religious obligations are performed for rewards in the life hereafter with no worldly angle. These may, however, have benefits of this world too. It is only supplication that brings benefits of both the worlds. A prayer for worldly gains shall also accrue rewards in the hereafter. A prayer only meant for the hereafter is highly rewarding. In the Quran and Hadiths its preference and importance have been repeatedly described. The Prophet (SAW) said that anyone granted the ability to pray has the doors of Divine acceptance opened for him/her. He (SAW) also said that only a prayer can forestall destiny/death and no precaution or planning can do so. It is useful to avert a torment/trouble which has begun or is on its way. The Prophet (SAW) said there is nothing more valuable to Allah Almighty than a prayer. Anyone who desires that his/her prayers should be answered when in distress should excessively pray, when in joy and tranquility. Supplication is a weapon of a Muslim and a pillar of Islam. A property of the prayer is that even a flawed thing becomes successful. In prayer, a special link is established with Allah Almighty which is discernible. The spiritual path can be easily traversed with supplications. Another advantage of a prayer is that one supplicating is considered as incapacitated. On the Day of Judgment when questioned as to why did he/she follow the path of truth? She/he will say that he made his/her best efforts to find the truth, even praying to Allah Almighty. Sometime Allah Almighty blesses the pious people with greater rewards for their feeble efforts in consideration of their earnest supplications.

          Method of Acceptance of Prayers

          Superiority of praying been mentioned in the books of hadith. Logically it is better than a stratagem, being closer to the fate and destiny. Masses make all sorts of schemes but often fail to supplicate. Only a few prayers are remembered by heart and then uttered without concentration and humility, like a cramped lesson. The other mistake is that when a prayer is not accepted than the Devil misleads us to believe it to be the least effective way. The Prophet (SAW) said that supplication of a believer will never remain unanswered if he/she persists in it. His/her needs may be met immediately or preserved for the future. A prayer is always granted but in different forms. Firstly, it is accepted in toto. Secondly, a better reward is given. Thirdly a supplication is preserved for rewards in the hereafter. Those in the last category, witnessing the rewards in the hereafter shall wish that all their prayers were unanswered. Be assured, that that all your supplications are answered, but Allah Almighty fully cognizant of our betterment; deals with them accordingly. He knows fully what and when to grant it. A physician can’t be requested for a self prescribed treatment. He knows better how to treat a disease.
          Allah Almighty says:-
          اجیب دعوۃ الداع اذا دعان

          (I respond to the call of one when he prays to Me) Al Baqara – 186

          So when a supplication is accepted for consideration, its fulfillment is sure provided it is suitable for us or else something better shall be granted. Acceptance of a prayer is definitely guaranteed and promised. What is granted has not been promised.

          Etiquettes of Supplication

          Etiquettes of supplication have been described in the authentic books of Hadith. A prayer is sure to be accepted this way. However if all the preconditions cannot be met, one must still continue to pray; hoping that it shall be granted. The foremost condition is to earn legitimately (Hilal) and avoid prohibited subsistence. The other established manners for praying are; to have performed ablution, face in the direction of Kabba, sitting with knees folded, spread both hands, recitation of salutations of Allah Almighty , benedictions (Durad) on the Prophet (SAW) and expression of own helplessness and humility. During salutation one can use the prophets (AS) and other pious people as an interemediatery. Supplications should be interlinked with the prayers of the Prophet (SAW). Pray with zeal and expectation. Never pray for illegitimate things. Address your pray to Allah Almighty only and no one else. A prayer should be ended with ‘Ameen’ and rub both hands on the face. Never be in a hurry for fulfillment of your prayers.

          Means & Supplication

          The Prophet (SAW) adopted a balanced approach between supplication and adoption of means. He advocated adoption of means along with trust in Allah Almighty and supplication. Neither should one quit means nor forget to pray to the Creator of all means. After all a prayer is also a mean towards fulfillment of a desire or need. It should not be forgotten or deferred for something trivial like an amulet etc. The prayers that are stated in the Quran and Hadith and practiced by prophets (AS) and the saints are normally ignored. Some people not considering supplication as a mean are deprived of its efficacy. While some only expect their jobs done through supplication even in matters where they exercise control. Being servants of Allah Almighty we must use means to the utmost; while praying to Allah Almighty. One should never hesitate to pray on pretext of something being small and petty. Everything is trivial for Allah Almighty; be it sky or a chunk of salt stone. One must convince himself to pray. In adoption of worldly means success in never guaranteed, but in supplication there is no fear of a loss. So why hesitate?
    • Submissiveness
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          ہُمْ فِیۡ صَلَاتِہِمْ خٰشِعُوۡنَ

          (Those who offer their Salât (prayers) with all solemnity and full submissiveness.) Al Mumenoon – 2

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          فیصلی رکعتین مقبلا علیھا

          (Offer two rakkas such that heart and face are focused)


          Willful seclusion from heart (qal’b) of all others than Allah Almighty during worship and vitreous deed e.g. while offering prayers (sala’t) total absence of undesirable things is submissiveness or literally ‘Total peace and tranquility’. With the prescribed controlled movement of the body parts, the heart (qal’b) should also be tranquil which is a function of focus and attention. Like the body parts, control of the heart is desirable. A strong person is capable of ensuring that while offering prayers no untoward motion is made. An incapacitated person may make involuntary movements like twitching and shuddering in pain. Once the pain is over he/she will regain peace. Likewise a person devoid of worries will be more focused as compared to a worried person. Even in a temporary peace of mind, one has to exercise submissiveness with tranquility and attention. If one is not able to determine his situation and how to get rid of worries, then it is better to consult an experienced guide. One way to gain focus is to concentrate on a single permissible sacred object like Allah Almighty. Failing here, one may imagine the holy Kabba or concentrate on the words being recited or their meanings. Such attention can keep one away from other thoughts because self (naf’s) can focus on a single thing at any one time.

          How to Gain tranquility and Peace

          Different thoughts work for different people, varying from person to person. At times, a person because of in experience and lack of vision may choose a method that may not suit him/her temperamentally resulting in frustration. With repeated failures, he may assume that solace of heart is unattainable and may quit. Selection of the right method is therefore necessary. Another anomaly often committed is over concentration. One expects to become totally devoid of thoughts. This not being possible also ends in dejection. So the best is not to over concentrate but make a balanced effort. Any other unwanted thought occurring involuntarily may not be harmful e.g. while reading a book other words unintentionally appear in sight despite focus on a single word. Third error committed is that one starts weighing whether a thought was voluntary or involuntary; which is superfluous. The concentration that can curtail thoughts is of two types. One is multiple thoughts without any focus and the other is to breed a meaningless singular hollow thought in your mind. A scholar or a Hafiz who knowing the meanings of what is being recited may not be focused in pondering over the words but still his thoughts will not be intercepted. On the other hand another person with focus recapitulating the meanings is prone to wander. Such a person needs a single sacred object to keep in mind like thought of Allah Almighty or Kabba or any other thing. As far thought of Allah Almighty is concerned one may without much ado imagine Him or one of His acts like He is watching him/her.
          Hazrat Thanvi (RA) had stated that a way to achieve concentration is to imagine that all acts, submissions, prayers and recitation shall be soon presented before Allah Almighty. All our voluntary acts and deeds should be worth presenting. This is sufficient to ensure focus and concentration. Initially one my find it hard but gradually it will develop and mature with practice.
          It is narrated in hadith that once the Prophet (SAW) felt endangered while offering his prayers (Hadith Akhraja Al Trimzi). It shows that a prayer without thoughts is an essential condition for submissiveness in prayers. To deliberately ponder during ‘salat’ is also wrong. However involuntary thoughts my not affect the condition of submissiveness. One is only required to ensure that he/she should pay no attention to thoughts occurring during prayers. Since it requires an effort to keep the thoughts away or to ignore them and gain focus, so such a prayer is more rewarding because of the effort being put in; which is desirable.
          The ultimate concentration is deterred by voluntary thoughts which falling within permissible limits are not a sin but spoil the submissiveness. Thinking about acts prohibited in Islam is a sin also.
          وَ اِنۡ تُبْدُوۡا مَا فِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِكُمْ اَوْ تُخْفُوۡہُ یُحَاسِبْكُمۡ بِہِ اللہُ

          (If you disclose what is in your hearts or conceal it, Allah shall hold you accountable for it) Al Baqra - 28

          This verse indicates that apprehensions and Devilish temptations are sinful. However it has been clarified in a hadith that it is only the optional apprehensions which are sinful.
          The holy Quran has further clarified the point:-
          لَا یُکَلِّفُ اللہُ نَفْسًا اِلَّا وُسْعَہَا

          (On no soul doth Allah place a burden greater than it can bear) Al Baqra - 286

          This verse amply explains that no one is expected to do beyond his/her capacity. Involuntary apprehensions are beyond one’s control, so the best is to simply ignore them. The Devil is consistently endeavouring to lead us astray. When he fails in ensuring that sins are committed, he then attempts to infuse apprehensions so that worship is quit. The well established saints are not scared of this satanic ploy which can be easily warded off by ignoring it. One should not unnecessarily make efforts to parry them. Just refocus on the chosen objective. Neither should one attempt to create apprehensions or try to ward them off. An effort needs attention and focus, taking one away from the worship. Finding a loop hole in focus, the Devils shall infuse more apprehensions.

          The Need to Focus

          Allah Almighty says:-
          اَلَمْ یَاۡنِ لِلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَنۡ تَخْشَعَ قُلُوۡبُہُمْ لِذِكْرِ اللہِ وَمَا نَزَلَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ ۙوَلَا یَكُوۡنُوۡا کَالَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الْکِتٰبَ مِنۡ قَبْلُ فَطَالَ عَلَیۡہِمُ الْاَمَدُ فَقَسَتْ قُلُوۡبُہُمْ ؕ وَکَثِیۡرٌ مِّنْہُمْ فٰسِقُوۡنَ

          (Has the time not yet come for those who believe that their hearts should be humble for the remembrance of Allah and for the truth that has descended (through revelation)? They must not be like those to whom the Book was given before, but a long period passed on them (in which they did not repent), therefore their hearts became hard, and (thus) many of them are sinners.) Al Hadid - 16

          In this verse need of focus in the remembrance of Allah Almighty has been mentioned. Remembrance of Allah Almighty includes all worships. A stern warning has been given here, in reference to the Jews and the Christians and an advice not to be like them. This vividly shows how bad the absence of focus and submissiveness can be. Hardening of hearts has been indicated as its cause. This is such a bad condition that another place the Quran says:-
          فَوَیۡلٌ لِّلْقٰسِیَۃِ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ مِّنۡ ذِكْرِ اللہِ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ فِیۡ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ

          (Is one whose heart Allah has opened to Islam, so that he has received enlightenment from Allah, (no better than one hard-hearted)? Woe to those whose hearts are hardened against celebrating the praises of Allah! They are manifestly wandering - in error) Az Zumar - 22

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          ان ابعد شئی من اللہ القلب القاسی

          (The farthest from Allah Almighty is the one with a hardened heart)

          Modus Operandi

          If the trait of submissiveness already exists then one has to adopt the suitable style and behavior. In case it is nonexistent then there are four ways to acquire it:-
        2. Adoption of its style is important to begin with i.e. one must keep the voice low, be soft spoken, walk slowly with a bowed head, refrain from vengeance and control himself in rage.
        3. Join company of the submissive people.
        4. Inculcate fear of Allah Almighty. To develop this fear one must in solitude recount the Divine blessing and his/her acts of defiance and contemplate that blessings can be forfeited. Think of the day of Judgment, the Balance, the Hell and the Bridge (pul e sarat)
        5. Spend at least one month during a year under the tutelage of a perfect guide. Follow his instructions. Allah Almighty through him shall bless you with the trait of submissiveness.

        6. How To Gain Submissiveness In Acts.

          Initially attention is needed to begin a ritual, not necessarily focus on every word is called for e.g. before recitation of holy Quran, it is enough to imagine of seeking pleasure of Allah Almighty. The only proviso is that till a foreign thought emerges initial concentration remains sufficient. Going to the central mosque, one only has to declare his intention, not needing to repeat it on every step; which will make walking difficult. One will have to reiterate his intension only the focus has drifted substantially, especially in a non permissible direction. Submission is gained by stressing one’s self (naf’s) like during prayers. This is a rigorous exercise which is humanly possible. An act with rigor is more acceptable than one without it. If spurious thoughts exist even then one must try to focus on the ritual. Such a state can only be developed with effort as it doesn’t come on its own.
          It is narrated in Hadith:-
          الذی یتعتع فیہ وھو علیہ شاق لہ اجران

          (A person reciting with difficulty and effort is bestowed with twice the reward)

          Quran should preferably be recited word by word like a novice with focus on every single word. Similarly prayers (Salat) should be offered with continuous focus on every word. Every act should be performed with deliberate intention and focus. It should not be a mere utterance of cramped words. This way concentration is gained which doesn’t drift and leads to total submission.

          An Easy Method

          One should imagine that he/she is present before Allah Almighty who is watching and listening. Remember to remain focused.
    • Preaching
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَلْتَكُنۡ مِّنۡكُمْ اُمَّۃٌ یَّدْعُوۡنَ اِلَی الْخَیۡرِ وَیَاۡمُرُوۡنَ بِالْمَعْرُوۡفِ وَیَنْہَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنۡکَرِ ؕ وَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الْمُفْلِحُوۡنَ

          (There has to be a group of people from among you who call towards the good, and bid the Fair and forbid the Unfair. And it is these who are successful) Ale Imran-104

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          مُرو بالمعروف وانھواعن المنک

          (Call towards Divine Commands and stop from prohibitions)


          Divine commands are an obligation; applicable to all. It has two types, special preaching and common preaching. Everyone is duty bound to do special preaching while the other types is only restricted to the religious scholars who should be facilitated in terms of logistic expenditure and emoluments. Criteria for preaching is vested in the authority enjoyed e.g. parents are suppose to teach basic religious tenants to their children. A husband is obliged to ensure that his wife observes the Sharia laws. A master should ensure that his servants and subordinates obey the Divine commands.
          It is stated in hadith:-
          مُرو اصبیانکم بالصلوٰۃاذا بلغو۱ سبعاً واضربو ھم اذا بلغوا عشرا

          When your children are of seven years of age order them to pray. At ten, ensure that they do so, even if you have to beat them.

          اَلَّذِیۡنَ اِنۡ مَّکَّنّٰہُمْ فِی الْاَرْضِ اَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتَوُا الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ اَمَرُوۡا بِالْمَعْرُوۡفِ وَ نَہَوْا عَنِ الْمُنۡکَرِ

          (The ones who help Allah are) those who, when We give them power in the land, establish Salah, pay Zakah, bid what is Fair and forbid what is Unfair. And with Allah lies the fate of all matters.) Al Hajj - 41

          A person of authority, who is sure that no harm will come to him, when he ensures implementation of the Divine Commands and Prohibitions; has to implement them, whether these are obligatory (Faraz) or preferential (Mosta’hib). It is not compulsory for an individual to preach who is unable or constrained to do so. The least one should do is to condemn those abhor able acts in heart.
          Rulers are only allowed to preach with hand and not the masses because it can lead to mischief and turmoil. Purpose of preaching is reformation and not chaos and disorder.
          This rule has its variants too i.e. a father rules over his son and a husband over his wife. In such a situation, preaching with force is allowed. It is narrated in the books of hadiths that a time shall come when people despite being able to stop sinners, will fail to do so because of lethargy and complacency. They will be the people inviting the wrath and punishment of Allah Almighty. Hazrat Ayyesha Siddiqa (RH) described a village under the Divine punishment where eighteen thousand pious Muslims lived. Their deeds were like the prophets (AS), but since they had failed to ensure implementation of the Divine Commands and check prohibitions. They were all killed. To ignore a sin is as bad as sin itself and one cannot be absolved of the responsibility to curb it.

          Etiquettes of Preaching

        2. Have complete knowledge of the subject.
        3. Aim should be to please Allah Almighty and not self appeasement.
        4. Be kind and affectionate when preaching.
        5. While preaching just focus on its delivery and not the results.
        6. Be generalized in approach and do not pin point individuals.
        7. Take no emoluments or other benefits in kind. Deliver it free of to ensure Divine blessings.
        8. Do not embarrass a person by reforming him publically.
        9. Avoid harshness and abrasion. Be soft and kind. Tolerate opposition.

        10. Method of Preaching

          Allah Almighty addressing the Prophet (SAW) says in the holy Quran:-

          اُدْعُ اِلٰی سَبِیۡلِ رَبِّکَ بِالْحِكْمَۃِ وَ الْمَوْعِظَۃِ الْحَسَنَۃِ وَجَادِلْہُمۡ بِالَّتِیۡ ہِیَ اَحْسَنُ

          (Invite people, to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good counsel. And argue with them in the best of manners) An Nahl - 125

          There is only one Divine way and that is Islam. The Prophet (SAW) was commanded to invite people to follow its true path. Three aspects have been mentioned i.e. a tactful invitation, invitation through wisdom and good counsel and a modest debate in the best of manners. A dialogue has two facets; one is to prove the point with solid arguments. The other is to counter arguments of the opponent logically. The first can be termed as a tactful invitation/counsel and the other is a modest debate. One is merely like a town crier who only announces proclamation of the king, with no concern or responsibility whether it is obeyed/acted upon or not. The other form is like a father who is trying to persuade his son with affection and concern. A father will go to any extent to ensure no harm comes to his son. An articulate preacher shall address the audience so eloquently that the message sinks in and even the opponents are compelled to accept it. This is the method of the prophets (AS). Our holy Prophet (SAW) followed the same technique all his life.

          How to Gain

          One must ponder on benefits of preaching and remind himself of the Divine warnings for not doing so. Allah Almighty be begged for grant of prowess to preach. Congregations of those bestowed this trait should be attended.
    • Contemplation (Ta’fakr)

        1. اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوْمٍ یَّتَفَکَّرُوۡنَ

          (Surely, in that there is a sign for a people who ponder) Al Nakhl-69

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          فاٰثرو ا مایبقیٰ علی ٰ ما یفنی

          (Prefer immortal things over mortal things)


          To deduce a conclusion from known entities is contemplation or reflection.
          اِنَّ فِیۡ خَلْقِ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ الَّیۡلِ وَالنَّہَارِ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّاُولِی الۡاَلْبَابۚ ۙ الَّذِیۡنَ یَذْكُرُوۡنَ اللہَ قِیٰمًا وَّقُعُوۡدًا وَّعَلٰی جُنُوۡبِہِمْ وَیَتَفَکَّرُوۡنَ فِیۡ خَلْقِ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرْضِ ۚ رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ ہٰذَا بَاطِلًا ۚ سُبْحٰنَکَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

          (Surely, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are signs for the people of wisdom, Who remember Allah standing and sitting, and (lying) on their sides, and ponder on the creation of the heavens and the earth (and say) “Our Lord, You have not created all this in vain. We proclaim Your purity. So, save us from the punishment of Fire.) Ale Imran – 190,191

          It is evident from these verses and hadiths that to we must strive to arrive at the right conclusions through reflection and thought. Keeping in view the greatness of Allah Almighty and certainty of the Day of Judgment, one must beg for the Divine forgiveness. The temporary possessions and pleasure of this world are trivial before the immortal bounties of the Hereafter. It is another matter that one has to beg Allah Almighty for everything including the worldly needs. Preference should be given to the life hereafter. The holy Prophet (SAW) remained worried and at best humour, he only smiled. He (SAW) said,” What I know if transpired to others will take away their laughter and they shall be crying.”

          The Need to Reflect

          عن علی قال لاخیر فی قرائ ۃ لیس فیھا تدبر ولا عبادۃ فیھا فقہ

          Hazrat Ali (RH) has narrated that it is not profitable to recite the Quran without reflection and to worship without the Divine cognizance.
          Great Sufis always followed this advice. Reflection paves the way of cognizance. Hazrat Thanvi (RA) has termed it like the main bearing of a watch (A key part used in old watches) which despite being small, runs the whole system. The holy Quran at numerous places has referred to the importance of reflection and contemplation. Allah Almighty states:-
          کَذٰلِکَ یُبَیِّنُ اللہُ لَكُمُ الۡاٰیٰتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَکَّرُوۡنَ ۙ فِی الدُّنْیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ

          (This is how Allah makes His verses clear to you, so that you may ponder) Al Baqra -219

          This precisely is the reason that the pious having found the real worth of hereafter through their reflections, hate this world.

          Method of Reflection

          Splendor of belief and faith is perfected through reflective remembrance. Allah Almighty says:-
          وَ لْتَنۡظُرْ نَفْسٌ مَّا قَدَّمَتْ لِغَدٍ

          (O you who believe, fear Allah, and everybody must consider what he /she has sent ahead for tomorrow) Al Hashr – 18

          One should continuously carry out his/her accountability. Recount good and bad deeds performed daily. Be grateful to Allah Almighty for virtues and beg His forgiveness for the sins committed. Must deliberate what he/she speaks or does. Carry out spiritual exercises (Murq’bat) especially the Death Muraq’ba or the Life muraq’ba of the life hereafter with all its pleasures and bounties which could only be sought through the pleasure of Allah Almighty. This way one is likely to keep away from sins.
    • Piety (Taq’va)
        1. Allah Almighty says:-
          یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللہَ وَكُوۡنُوۡا مَعَ الصّٰدِقِیۡنَ

          (O ye who believe! Fear Allah and be with those who are true (in word and deed). Al Tawba – 119

          The Prophet (SAW) said:-
          الا ان التقوی ھٰھنا واشار الی صدر

          Pointing to the heart, he (SAW) said that piety lies here.

          Essence of Piety

          No other thing has been mentioned more than piety in the holy Quran; which demonstrates its importance and standing. Piety has been inferred in hadith as fearing and keeping away. Aim is to stay away from sinning, which is a function of fear.
          It is narrated in hadith that when the following verse was revealed, the Companions (RHs) feared that piety has been imposed straightaway.
          یاایھا الذین اٰمنواا تق فاتقو اﷲ حق تقاتہ

          (O you who believe, fear Allah, as He should be feared, and let not yourself die save as Muslims) Al e Imran – 102

          It is practically impossible to acquire piety straightaway. Right piety is to acquire the level which is commensurate with the eminence and glory of Allah Almighty which is not implied in the verse; being beyond the human capacity. Allah Almighty doesn’t burden a person beyond his/her power. What is implied here is the piety within human limits; which should be acquired. To clarify the point further a second verse was revealed:-
          فَاتَّقُوا اللہَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ

          (So, observe taqwa (total obedience to Allah in awe of Him) as far as you can) At Taghabun – 16

          Adopt the level of piety that you presently have and then develop it to a level of excellence. There are many levels of piety. Staying away from infidelity and making partners with Allah Almighty is one category. The other encompasses, to be stead fast in virtue and avoid prohibitions. Piety will develop as the good deeds are performed. With development of piety one’s faith is perfected to the level of ‘Ihsan’ which is highest pedestal of faith and piety. This is also the desired level. Allah Almighty says:-
          لَیۡسَ الْبِرَّ اَنۡ تُوَلُّوۡا وُجُوۡہَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلٰکِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ اٰمَنَ بِاللہِ وَالْیَوْمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ الْمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ وَ الْکِتٰبِ وَ النَّبِیّٖنَ ۚ وَاٰتَی الْمَالَ عَلٰی حُبِّہٖ ذَوِی الْقُرْبٰی وَ الْیَتٰمٰی وَ الْمَسٰکِیۡنَ وَ ابْنَ السَّبِیۡلِ ۙ وَالسَّآئِلِیۡنَ وَ فِی الرِّقَابِ ۚ وَاَقَامَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَاٰتَی الزَّکٰوۃَ ۚ وَالْمُوۡفُوۡنَ بِعَہۡدِہِمْ اِذَا عٰہَدُوۡا ۚ وَالصّٰبِرِیۡنَ فِی الْبَاۡسَآءِ والضَّرَّآءِ وَحِیۡنَ الْبَاۡسِ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ صَدَقُوۡا ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الْمُتَّقُوۡنَ

          (Righteousness is not (merely) that you turn your faces to the East and the West; but righteousness is that one believes in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Book and the Prophets, and gives wealth, despite (his) love for it, to relatives, and to orphans, the helpless, the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and (spends) in (freeing) slaves and observes the Salah (prayers) and pays Zaka_and (the act of) those who fulfill their covenant when they enter into a covenant, and, of course, those who are patient in hardship and suffering and when in battle! Those are the ones who are truthful, and those are the God-fearing) Al Baqra – 177

          It can be discerned from this verse that real purpose and achievements of this life are predominantly linked with the religious activities. Facing of a specific direction while praying is one the high points and a subordinate condition. Without salat, facing a direction would be meaningless and never a part of worship. In the above verse, basic contours of piety have been described. Apparently abstract things at their own should not be considered sufficient. Then the basic rituals have been explained i.e. faith in Allah Almighty, faith in angles, Books and all prophets (AS). Then cleanliness of wealth and to spend it in the name of Allah Almighty has been exhorted, which is linked to purification of heart (qal’b). Then is mentioned a physical worship of praying (Salat) followed by obligatory alms (Zakat) which is a financial worship and then is the matter of keeping a promise, a social obligation. Patience has been mentioned which relates to spirituality. All the facets of piety have been mentioned here in outline ending on ‘and those are the God-fearing’.