IBADAAT -> Sacrifice
- Qurbani is wajib on the person upon whom sadaqatul fitr is wajib. If the person does not have wealth which equals the nisab of sadaqatul fitr, qurbani will not be wajib on him. But if he makes qurbani despite it not being wajib on him, he will be greatly rewarded.
- Qurbani is not wajib on a musafir.
- The time of qurbani commences from the day of eid ul-ad'ha, i.e. the 10th of Zil Hijjah until the sunset of the 12th of Zil Hijjah. Qurbani could be made on any of these three days. However, the best day for qurbani is the day of eid ul-ad'ha, followed by the 11th and then the 12th of Zil Hijjah.
- It is not permissible to make qurbani prior to the eid salat. Qurbani should be made when the people complete offering their eid salat. However, it is permissible for those who live in the villages and on farms to make their qurbani from the commencement of fajr time. But the inhabitants of cities and towns should make their qurbani after the eid salat.
- If a city dweller sends his sacrificial animal to the village or farm, it will be permissible for this qurbani to be made before the eid salat even if this person is still in the city. Once the sacrificial animal is sent to the village, it becomes permissible to sacrifice it before the eid salat. Once it has been slaughtered, the person can bring it back and consume it smeat.
- It is permissible to make qurbani on the 12th of Zil Hijjah provided this is done before sunset. It is not permissible to make the qurbani once the sun has set.
- Qurbani could be made at any time between the 10th and 12th of Zil Hijjah. One has the choice of making it at night or during the day. However, it is not good to make the qurbani at night as there is the danger of not cutting one of the veins and thereby making the qurbani invalid.
- A person was a musafir on the 10th, 11th, and 12th but returned before sunset on the 12th. Alternatively, he made the intention of stopping over at a place for more than 15 days. In both cases, qurbani will be wajib on him. Similarly, qurbani was not wajib on a person due to his not having the nisab which makes qurbani wajib. However, he received some money before sunset on the 12th. Qurbani will therefore become wajib on him.
- It is best to make one's qurbani with one's own hands. However, if a person cannot slaughter an animal, he should appoint someone to do so and also present himself at the time when the animal is being slaughtered. But if a woman cannot be present there due to purdah, then there is no harm in her not being present when her animal is being slaughtered.
- At the time of slaughtering the animal, it is not necessary to make a verbal intention or dua. If the person has the intention in his heart that he is making qurbani and thereafter makes qurbani after having said Bismillahi Allahu Akbar, the qurbani will be valid. But if the person remembers the dua that has been mentioned above, it will be best to recite it.
- Qurbani is only wajib on one's own behalf. It is not wajib on behalf of one's children. In fact, if one's immature children are rich, even then qurbani is not wajib on their behalf - neither from one's own wealth nor from their wealth. If a person makes qurbani on their behalf, it will be considered to be an optional (nafl) qurbani. However, this qurbani will have to be made from one's own wealth. Under no circumstances should it be made from their wealth.
- Qurbani is permissible with the following animals: goats, sheep, bulls, buffaloes, camels. The females of each could also be used for qurbani. Apart from these, qurbani is not permissible with any other animal.
- It is permissible for seven people to take shares from one bull, buffalo or camel. However, the condition for this is that no person's share should be less than one seventh of the total. In addition to this, the intention of all of them should be that of qurbani or aqeeqah and no one should have the intention of merely consuming the meat. If anyone's share is less than one seventh, the qurbani of all seven persons will not be valid.
- If less than seven persons share one bull, e.g. if six persons share one animal and none of their shares is less than one seventh, this qurbani will be valid. But if eight persons share one animal, the entire qurbani will be invalid and no one's share will be accepted.
- A person purchased a bull for the purpose of qurbani. At the time of purchasing the animal, he made the intention that if anyone wishes to share the animal with him he will allow them to do so. Later, a few people joined him in sharing the bull. This qurbani will be valid. But if at the time of purchasing the animal, he did not intend sharing it with anyone else and decided to keep the entire animal for himself, then it will not be good to share the animal with anyone else. If this person does happen to share the animal with someone else, we will have to see if this person who originally purchased the animal for himself is a rich person or a poor person. If he is a rich person and qurbani was wajib on him, it will be permissible to do so. But if he is a poor person and qurbani was not wajib on him, it will not be permissible for him to share this animal with anyone else if he did not make the intention to do so at the time of purchasing the animal.
- A qurbani animal got lost. The person therefore purchased another animal. Thereafter, he found the first animal. If this happened to a rich person, the qurbani of only one animal is wajib on him. But if this happened to a poor person, the qurbani of both animals will be wajib on him.
- If seven persons share one animal, the meat should be equally distributed by weighing it in the proper manner. It should not be distributed by mere estimation. If the meat is not properly weighed and there is a difference in the amount of shares, this will be regarded as interest and also a sin. However, if the head, hooves and skin are also shared, it will be permissible to give less meat to the one who received the head, feet or skin. If a person who received more meat and also receives the head, feet or skin, this will also be regarded as interest and a sin.
- A goat that is less than a year old is not permissible. When it completes a full year, qurbani of it will be permissible. Bulls and buffaloes have to be at least two years old. Camels have to be at least five years old. Sheep that are fat and healthy and appear to be one year old and if kept with one year old sheep cannot be distinguished, then in such a case a sheep that is even six months old can be used for qurbani. But if this is not the case, then the sheep will have to be at least one year old.
- An animal that is blind or more than one third of it's eye sight is lost, or one third or more of it's ear is cut off, or one third or more of it's tail is cut off cannot be used for qurbani.
- An animal that is lame and only walks on three feet without placing the fourth foot on the ground or places it's fourth foot on the ground but does not walk with it cannot be used for qurbani. But if it uses it's fourth foot as a support and walks in a lame fashion, it's qurbani will be valid.
- An animal that is extremely frail to such an extent that there is no meat on its bones cannot be used for qurbani. But if an animal is not so frail and is merely thin by nature, then the qurbani of such an animal will be valid. However, it is best to use an animal that is strong and healthy.
- Qurbani of an animal that has no teeth at all is not permissible. But if a few teeth have fallen off and a majority of the teeth are still intact, then qurbani of such an animal will be permissible.
- Qurbani of an animal that was born without ears is not permissible. However, if an animal has very small ears, it will be permissible to make qurbani of it.
- It is permissible to make qurbani of an animal that was born without horns or an animal whose horns were broken off. However, if the horns are removed from their roots, such an animal cannot be used for qurbani.
- The qurbani of castrated goats, sheep, etc. is permissible. An animal that is mangy (afflicted with a skin disease) can also be used for qurbani. However, if this animal has become absolutely frail due to this manginess, then it cannot be used for qurbani.
- If an animal was purchased for qurbani and later it developed a certain defect whereby qurbani is not permissible, another animal should be purchased in place of this animal. However, if a poor person upon whom qurbani was not wajib purchased such an animal, he does not have to purchase another animal. He could use the same animal that he had originally purchased.
- The meat of qurbani should be consumed by oneself, it should be given to one's friends and relatives, and also given to the poor and needy. It is best to give at least one third part of meat as charity. One should not give less than one third. However, if a person gives even a very little amount to the poor, there will be no harm in this.
- The skin of the animal could be given as it is, or one could sell the skin and give the money derived from it as charity. This money should be given to people who are entitled to receive zakat. Furthermore, the same money that one received for the skin should be given. It is not good for a person to use that money for some other purpose even if he gives that same amount at a later time. However, if he does so, his obligation will be fulfilled.
- The amount received by selling the skin cannot be used for the upkeep of a musjid or any other noble deed. It will have to be given in charity.
- The qurbani skin could be used for one's personal use, e.g. it could be used to make a water bag, musallah, etc.
- No meat, fat or scraps of meat should be given to those who help in the skinning and cutting of the animal as a form of payment. They should be paid separately for the work which they have done.
- The strings, ropes, chains, etc. of qurbani animal should be given in charity.
- Qurbani was not wajib on a person. However, he purchased an animal with the intention of qurbani. Qurbani now becomes wajib on him.
- Qurbani was wajib on a person. However, he did not make qurbani so much so that the three days of qurbani also expired. He should therefore give the value of one goat or sheep in charity. But if he bought a goat and did not sacrifice it within those three days, he should give that very goat as it is in charity.
- A person took an oath that if a certain work of his is fulfilled, he will make a qurbani. If his work is fulfilled, qurbani will become wajib on him irrespective of whether he is a poor or a rich person. The meat of such a qurbani will have to be given to the poor. The person cannot consume it himself nor can he give it to any rich people. If he happens to consume some of that meat or gives some to any rich person, he will have to give that same amount in charity again.
- If a person makes qurbani on behalf of a dead person out of his own will in order to send the rewards to the deceased person, it will be permissible for this person to consume the meat himself, feed others, and also distribute it to whomsoever he wishes. In other words, he can use it as he would with his own qurbani.
- However, if a deceased person had made a bequest that qurbani be made on his behalf from his wealth, and qurbani was made according to this wish of his, it will be wajib to give all the meat in charity.
- If a person is not present and someone makes qurbani on his behalf without his orders, this qurbani will not be valid. And if a share was included in an animal on behalf of a person without his orders, the qurbani of all the other shares will also not be valid.
- If a person gives his animal to someone to take care of it, this animal does not fall under the ownership of this person who is taking care of it. It remains under the ownership of the original person. Therefore, if a person purchases this animal from the person who is taking care of the animal, the qurbani will not be valid. If one wishes to purchase such an animal, one should go to the original owner.
- There are several persons sharing one animal and they do not wish to divide the animal among themselves. Instead, they decide to distribute the entire animal among the poor, friends, relatives, or wish to use it for cooking and feeding. It will be permissible for them to do so. However, if they wish to distribute it amongst themselves, they will have to do so justly and on an equal basis.
- It is not permissible to give the value of the skin of qurbani animal as a form of payment to anyone because it is necessary to give it in charity.
- It is permissible to give the meat of qurbani to non-Muslims on condition that it is not given as a form of payment.
- The qurbani of a pregnant animal is permissible. If it's young one comes out alive, it will be necessary to slaughter it as well.
There is very great merit in qurbani. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "During the days of qurbani, Allah Ta'ala does not like any act more than qurbani. In the days of qurbani, the act of qurbani surpasses all other acts of piety. At the time of sacrificing the animal, this noble act is accepted by Allah Ta'ala before the blood of the animal can reach the ground. Therefore, make qurbani happily and open-heartedly." Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam also said: "For every hair that is on the sacrificial animal, one reward is recorded for the person making the qurbani." Glory be to Allah! Can there be a reward greater than this, that a person receives hundreds and thousands of rewards for just one single qurbani! If a person had to count the strands of wool on a sheep from morning till evening he will not be able to complete the count. Just try and imagine the innumerable rewards for one single qurbani. Piety demands that even if qurbani is not wajib on a person, he should make it in order to receive such great rewards. When these days of qurbani passes, when will one ever get an opportunity like this again, and how will he be able to receive such innumerable rewards so easily? If Allah Ta'ala has blessed a person with wealth, then apart from making qurbani for himself, he should also make qurbani for his relatives such as his parents who have passed away so that their souls will also be amply rewarded. One should also try and make qurbani on behalf of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, his wives, on behalf of one's spiritual guides, etc. If all this is not possible, one should at least make on one's own behalf because qurbani is wajib on the person who is wealthy. Qurbani is wajib on the person who is wealthy and who has been blessed with everything. If he does not make qurbani despite all this wealth, who can be more unfortunate than him? Apart from this, he will also be regarded as a sinner.
Once the sacrificial animal has been laid down towards the qiblah, the following dua should be recited:
Thereafter he should say:
and then slaughter the animal. After slaughtering the animal, the following dua should be recited: