Status of the Prophet’s (PBUH) Family- Perspective of Ahl e Sunna
اَلْحَمْدُ ِﷲِ رَبِّ الْعٰلَمِیْنِ۔اَلصَّلوٰۃُ وَ السَّلاَم ُ عَلیٰ خَاتَمَ النَّبِیینِ۔ ۔اَمَّا بَعْدُ فَاَعُوذُ بِاﷲِ مِنَ الشَّیْطٰنِ الرَّجِیْمِ۔ ۔ بِسْمِ اﷲِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِیْمِ۔ ۔ اِیَّاکَ نَعبُدُوَاِیَّاکَ نَسْتَعِینُ﴿۴﴾ اِھْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقیْمَ﴿۵﴾ صِرَاطَ الَّذِیْنَ اَنعَمتَ عَلَیْھِمْ ﴿۶﴾ غَیرِ الْمَغضُوْبِ عَلَیھمْ وَلَاالضَّآ لِّینَ﴿۷﴾۔ (Thee alone we worship; and of Thee alone we seek help. Guide us in the straight path. The path of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, Not of those who have incurred Your wrath, nor of those who have gone astray. ۔ Al-Fatiha, 4-7) ۔ ۔ وَقَالَ عَلَیْہِ الصَّلوٰۃُ وَالسَّلَامُ ، اَﷲَ اَﷲَ فِی اَصْحَابِی لَاتَتَّخِذوھُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِی غَرَضَاً فَمَنْ اَحَبَّھُمْ فَبِحُبِّیْ اَحَبَّھُمْ وَ مَنْ اَبْغَضَھُمْ فَبِبُغْضِی اَبْغَضَھُمْ۔ Allah Almighty is very kind to us. He never desires that someone may land in the Hell. So to save us, He initiated two systems of guidance i.e. prophets (AS) and Divine books. The prophet hood commenced with Hazrat Adam (AS) and ended with our holy Prophet (PBUH). Thereafter no more messengers will come. Anyone who thinks otherwise is an outright liar. According to the decree issued by Hazrat Abu Hanifa (RA), even to ask a false claimant of prophet hood to show a miracle comes in the realm of infidelity. So be sure that no more prophets will now come for our guidance. Anyone making a claim shall not only destroy himself but many others around him. May Allah Almighty save from the sacrilege. Amin. The series of the holy books also started with the advent of prophets (AS) and ended with the holy Quran. Whereas we believe in all the holy books, be it Torah, the Psalms of David (AS), Bible or other scriptures (revealed books) but we have been ordained to act in accordance with the Quran. Similarly believing in all the other Messengers (AS) of Allah Almighty, we can only follow Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH). His (PBUH) being the last and final Sunnah, where all the previous religious injunctions have been merged. Divine guidance from all earlier scriptures has been condensed into the Holy Quran. Now there is only one Book and one Prophet (PBUH) to follow. This matter is so important that it was chosen to be mentioned in Quran:- قُلْ اِنْ کُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّوْنَ اللّٰہَ فَاتَّبِعُوْنِیْ یُحْبِبْکُمُ اللّٰہُ وَ یَغْفِرْلَکُمْ ذُنُوْبَکُمْ۔ وَاللّٰہُ غ َفُوْرٌرَّحِیْمٌ﴿۱۳﴾۔ (Say (O Prophet): “If you really love Allah, then follow me, and Allah shall love you and forgive you your sins. Allah is Most-Forgiving, Very-Merciful. Ale Imran -31) In this verse Allah Almighty has exhorted the Prophet (PBUH) to tell his follower explicitly that love of Allah Almighty is only possible in his (PBUH) obedience. It has been enjoined that to obey the Prophet (PBUH) is to obey Allah Almighty. To explain the significance of love for his person, the Prophet (PBUH) had said that belief (e’maan) cannot be perfected unless love for him (PBUH) surpasses the love for family, wealth and one’s own self. Hazrat Omar (RH) once told the Prophet (PBUH) that he loved him more than anything else except his personal self. The Prophet (PBUH) replied that unless he loved him (PBUH) more than himself, his faith (e’maan) would not be completed. Omar (RH) then said,” Oh! Prophet (PBUH) now I love you even more than my life”. “You are on the right line now, Omar”, replied the Prophet (PBUH). It quite obvious that we have to emulate the Prophet (PBUH), love him and accept his (PBUH) teachings and spread them. This is our mandate and Divine injunction. Now that we know it for sure that the Prophet’s (PBUH) sunnah is the best way to lead our lives. This is the only way Allah Almighty has ordained and likes. A question then arises that how can we find the right method to do so. Simple answer is to emulate the Companions (RH) and try to reach the level of their love and affection. The Prophet (PBUH) had said that followers of the previous messengers (AS) had seventy two sects, whereas my umma (followers) would be divided into seventy three fragments. Only one of them is going to be on the correct path. He (PBUH) further added that, مَا ٲنَاعَلَیْہِ وَاَصْحَابِی۔ Only those shall succeed who follow in my foot steps and those of my Companions (RH). He did not restrict it to himself alone, but made imitation of his (PBUH) Companions compulsory. You may be wondering about its reason. Let me explain it a little bit. We all know that Quran being the book of Allah Almighty is superior to Hadith. Yet can we understand the Quran without the help of hadith? Obviously the answer is a big no. Now if someone says that he believes in Quran but has no faith in the hadith. According to Quran this is infidelity. Based on the same analogy anyone refuting the hadith is a non believer, because it implies refusal of the Holy Book. Sometimes those who deny the Hadith mislead others by complicating matters. They usually ask that is Quran a book of details (mufasil) or an abridged or abstract narration (mujamil). In case it is called a book of details they ask for a proof from the Holy book. And if it is termed as abstract/abridged, they object that how can it be implemented and practiced. This is out right mischief and nothing else. The correct answer is that for the Prophet (PBUH) it was a Book of details as he only knew all of them. For others it is an abstract revelation. To prove the point let’s see this verse:- کُلُوْا وَاشْرَبُوْا حَتّٰی یَتَبَیَّنَ لَکُمُ الْخَیْطُ الْاَبْیَضُ مِنَ الْخَیْطِ الْاَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِثُمَّ اَتِمُّوا الصِّیَامَ اِلَی الَّیْلِ۔ (And eat and drink until the white thread of the dawn becomes distinct from the black thread; then complete the fast up to the night. Al-Baqra, 187) On the revelation of this verse a Companion (RH) picked up a white thread while the other held a black one. As soon as they could differentiate their colours they stopped eating. On being informed it the Prophet (PBUH) explained to them that what was actually implied was a thread like line which appeared on the horizon, which is the morning. So you see here that who provided the explanation? It was the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Many a times it appears in Quran:- ا َقِیْمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَاٰتُواالزَّکٰوۃَ To offer prayers regularly and pay zakat (elms) appears a no of times but without any details. What are the rituals of salat (prayers), number of obligatory and other prayers, their timings etc? Who gave us these details? Obviously all these were provided and taught by the Prophet (PBUH). He had said:- صَلُّوُا کَمَا رَاَیْتُمُوُنِی اُصَلِّی (Pray in the way that you see me praying) مَنْ یُّطِعِ الرَّسُوْلَ فَقَدْ اَطَاعَ اللّٰہ (Whoever obeys the Messenger obeys Allah An Nisa -80) This verse very clearly lays down that to submit to the Prophet (PBUH) is not an option. It is the Divine verdict and has to be obeyed. The only way to offer prayers (sala’t) is the one prescribed by the Prophet (PBUH). Offering it any other way will make it null and void. Now to learn praying (sala’t) we have to consult the Hadith. Do you now understand that why is it not possible to know Quran without the Hadith. Similarly we must know that explanation/interpretation of the hadith can only be done by the Companions (RH). Then there were certain things which were specifically meant for the Prophet (PBUH). He was permitted to marry more than four women. His (PBUH) ablution remained valid even after sleeping. There are other such things which were only permitted to him (PBUH). We have to decipher that which of the ways of the Prophet (PBUH) was adapted by his Companions (RH) and which were the ones not taken. Those adopted practices now serve as a beacon light for us. They were also the ones who set all the standards of truth for us to emulate. You are aware of the importance of the foundation in a structure. The whole building collapses if its foundation crumbles. The Prophet (PBUH) on behalf of Allah Almighty proclaimed in respect of his (PBUH) Companions (RH):- اَﷲَ اَﷲَ فِی اَصْحَابِی لَاتَتَّخِذوھُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِی غَرَضَاً فَمَنْ اَحَبَّھُمْ فَبِحُبِّیْ اَحَبَّھُمْ وَ مَنْ اَبْغَضَھُمْ فَبِبُغْضِی اَبْغَضَھُمْ۔ The Prophet (PBUH) said,” Oh! My followers I beseech you for the sake of Allah Almighty not to condemn my Companions (RH) after I am gone. Anyone who loves them does so he loves me. Enmity with them is animosity with me.” Do you notice that the Prophet (PBUH) had taken complete responsibility on himself (PBUH).Anyone who loves them can love the Prophet (PBUH). And those who love the Prophet (PBUH) love Allah Almighty. Disowning them and keeping a grudge with the Companions (RH) amounts to disowning the Prophet (PBUH) and Allah Almighty. I hope I have made it amply clear that the Companions (RH) are the standard of ultimate truth for us. To talk good of them and to defend them is obligatory. How to criticize them is disdained and forbidden. Only a Companion (RH) could disagree with another Companion (RH) but none of us can do so. Talking about the differences between Hazrat Ali (RH) and Hazrat Amir Mavia (RH), Hazrat Hasan Basri (RA) who was a disciple of Hazrat Ali (RH) said,” If Allah Almighty has restrained our swords from the holy blood, why should we soil our tongues by commenting on them.” The Prophet (PBUH) had said:- اَﷲَ اَﷲَ فِی اَصْحَابِی لَاتَتَّخِذوھُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِی غَرَضَا One thing should be very clear in our minds. When we mentionthe names of the Companions of the Prophet (PBUH),is it Hazrat Abu Bakr (RH),Hazrat Omar (RH),Hazrat Usman (RH), Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair (RH) ,Hazrat Talah (RH) and others only? Can we exclude Hazrat Ali (RH) from this list? Does anyone have the audacity to do so? It is out of question and unthinkable. When the Companions (RH) are mentioned it includes the females also. All of them including the pious wives of the Prophet (PBUH).The complete house hold of the Prophet (PBUH), Hazrat Ali (RH), Hazrat Fatima (RH), Hazrat Hasan (RH), Hazrat Hussain(RH), Hazrat Abbas(RH) along with the all others are the Companions (RH).This list even includes Hazrat Wahshi (RH) who had been forbidden to sit before the Prophet (PBUH) because he reminded him of his (PBUH) uncle Hazrat Hamza (RH) who was slained by Wahshi in the Battle of Uhad. This has been nicely explained by Hazrat Ashraf Ali Thanvi (RA).He wrote that the Prophet (PBUH) did not hate Hazrat Wahshi. Had this been so why was he asked to embrace Islam? Do you recapitulate that when he was asked to become a Muslim, he hesitated on the plea that having slain the dear uncle of the Prophet (PBUH) how could he be acceptable. At that moment this beautiful verse was revealed:- قُلْ یٰعِبَادِیَ الَّذِیْنَ اَسْرَفُوْا عَلٰٓی اَنْفُسِھِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوْا مِنْ رَّحْمَۃِ اللّٰہِ۔ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوْبَ جَمِیْعًا۔ اِنَّہ، ھُوَ الْغَفُوْرٌ الرَّحِیْمٌ﴿۳۵﴾ (Say (on My behalf), “O servants of Mine who have acted recklessly against their own selves, do not despair of Allah’s mercy. Az-Zumar, 53) After coming into the fold of Islam, all the previous sins are pardoned and washed away. So why did the Prophet (PBUH) forbid Hazrat Wahshi (RH) from appearing before him (PBUH), if no grudge exited. The reason was that he (PBUH) was reminded of his (PBUH) beloved uncle and it pained him (PBUH).Anyone being a cause of grief to the Prophet (PBUH) could be damaged. So to save him from damage Hazrat Wahshi (RH) was advised accordingly. The Prophet (PBUH) never liked to harm a Muslim. This was the kindness and compassion which our Prophet (PBUH) had for his (PBUH) Companions (RH).So anyone who had the privilege of just looking at the Prophet (PBUH) and was fortunate to hear his (PBUH) voice qualifies as a Companion. No one can snatch this honour from him unless he turns into an apostate. Everyone of them whether the wives of the Prophet (PBUH),his family or the ordinary people, they have all been pardoned and blessed by Allah Almighty and the Prophet (PBUH). After this who can dare to hold them accountable transgression. Let me explain it further. Someone owes me twenty million rupees. One day in good mood I not only waive off the loan but also pay him two hundred thousand more. His opponents come to me and complain. I will obviously tell them to mind their business. So when Allah Almighty has forgiven them, how can somebody else object to it? It is only Allah Almighty Who can make somebody accountable and nobody else. The Prophet (PBUH) did not name one person when he said that when my Companion spends so much, the reward shall be equal to the Uhad Mountain. It was a generalized statement to include all of his (PBUH) Companions (RH). I do acknowledge here that variance/gradation in the stature and status of the Companions does exit. The elated ones had their own standing. This is an honour conferred by Allah Almighty and it cannot be questioned/refuted. تِلْکَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَھُمْ عَلٰی بَعْض (Those Messengers! We preferred some often to others; Al-Baqra, 253) We are all aware of the superiority some of the prophets had over the others. But we cannot differentiate and be critical. Even our beloved Prophet (PBUH) forbids it. He stopped his followers to rate him over Hazrat Younis bin Matti (AS).Surely there must have been some amongst them attempting to degrade Hazrat Younis (AS) by condemning his interpretative act of departing in frustration. This is the way Jews used to make comparisons. Some they projected so high to even belittle even Allah Almighty and some they degraded even lower than an ordinary person. May Allah Almighty save us making these comparisons. Amin. The same formula applies to the Companions (RH) of the Prophet (PBUH). We should never attempt to underrate anyone of them. We are allowed to praise them, but not at the cost of others. We can praise Hazrat Abu Bakr (RH), Hazrat Omar (RH), and Hazrat Usman (RH) but cannot condemn Hazrat Ali (RH) to elevate their status. No one is permitted to ridicule Hazrat Hussain (RH) or for that matter any other Companion (RH). Anyone doing it will be violating the saying of the holy Prophet (PBUH):- اَﷲَ اَﷲَ فِی اَصْحَابِی لَاتَتَّخِذوہُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِی غَرَضَاً فَمَنْ اَحَبَّھُمْ فَبِحُبِّیْ اَحَبَّھُمْ وَ مَنْ اَبْغَضَھُمْ فَبِبُغْضِی اَبْغَض It is proven beyond any doubt that condemnation of any Companion (RH) is not permissible at all. Now what is a balanced approach? Belief of those from the Sunni sect (Ahl e Sunnah) is that all the messengers of Allah Almighty being innocent cannot commit any sin. Anyone choosing to speak against them shall undoubtedly land in the Hell. Messengers are the chosen ones. How can someone criticize the selection made by Allah Almighty? Differences in their position are understandable but yet none of them can be humiliated. In the same way, the Companions (RH) are immune to ridicule and contempt. Being pivotal they were chosen to explain the religion making themselves examples for us to copy. If cutting of hand for theft was not declared as a punishment in those times, its acceptability and veracity could have been challenged today on the plea that it not substantiated by the Prophet’s (PBUH) acts. Strangely some people despite the existence of these punishments in the Hadith still question their validity. However their disbelief and impiety make them obvious enough to be taken seriously. You can imagine the fuss these people could have created if those examples of the Companions (RH) were not there for us to emulate. The Companions were made to commit mistakes by a Divine design (Takveni) in order to set examples for us. Then Allah Almighty pardoned them on their asking forgiveness. A companion of the Prophet (PBUH) was stoned to death for adultery based on his own testimony. He himself came to the Prophet (PBUH) and informed him of committing the crime and requested to be executed and cleansed. The Prophet (PBUH) initially tried to ignore him to dissuade from confession, but he was insistent on being cleansed. When finally he accepted his sin the fourth time, the Prophet (PBUH) then ordered him to be stoned to death. During the execution of the punishment, Hazrat Khalid Bin Walid (RH) hit him so hard with a stone that his blood oozed out. Hazrat Khalid (RH) muttered some derogatory remarks too. He was stopped by the Prophet (PBUH) and told that his repentance was so complete that whole of Hijaz could be pardoned of their sins. So this is the level and magnitude of the repentance of a Companion (RH). Nonetheless if punishment for crimes like theft, murder and adultery were not executed then Sharia could not have been so wholesome and complete today. Those revered people were chosen by Allah Almighty for the practical manifestation of Sharia, which was implemented through them both physically and spiritually. After their granting credence to sharia, their sins were pardoned and nothing was held against them. Now no Companion (RH) can be ridiculed or criticized even Hazrat Wahshi (RH). When Islamic laws of jurisprudence were by formulated, the jurists established a few principles. A matter on which there is total agreement amongst the Companions (RH), it is firm and final and cannot be debated. This is known as Ijma e Ummat and is the third principle. The hadith that,” my followers shall not unite on a wrong thing” authenticates it. The first principle is Quran, second is Sunnah and third is Consensus of the Companions (RH). The fourth principle is applicable in case of a dissent amongst the Companions (RH). You may wonder the how can two different versions be attributed to the Prophet (PBUH) who was a single being. Let me explain it. Here is a Companion who had all along remained with the Prophet (PBUH), where as another one came once, embraced Islam and went back never to return. Whatever he mentioned about the Prophet (PBUH) is true but the only difference is that he was not privy to the changes that happened later. Our religion was revealed gradually. When the Divine order on the prohibition of alcohol was pronounced many of the Companions expressed concern about those who had died taking liquor. It was told to them that they would not be held accountable for it was not prohibited then. Liquor was banned gradually in three stages. There was time that while offering prayers one could reply the greetings. A child could siton the shoulders. This all was allowed till Divine verdict قوموا للہ قانتین was pronounced and praying was then stabilized with more focus and concentration. Frequent raising of both hands repeatedly (raf e yadian) was reduced. Once Hazrat Abu Bakr (RH) charged on his daughter Hazrat Ayesha (RH); when he saw her moving while praying. So the change kept coming with passage of time. What the jurists do is that they determine the degree/frequency of contact with the Prophet (PBUH) to accept a version. They would not reject or condemn either of the notions. They would term it as a correct observation, but would go by the changed and the latest verdict. Then there was another difference amongst the Companions (RH). One was a well read scholar while the other was a simpleton villager; with obvious differences in their level of comprehension and understanding. The simple one only observed the broad aspects and did not glean into detail. While there were others like Hazrat Abbas (RH) who was an interpreter and writer of Quranic exegesis, Hazrat Abdullah Masood (RH),Hazrat Ali RH ( who was declared as the door to knowledge, Hazrat Omar (RH) who always spoke the truth and Hazrat Abu Bakr (RH) and others. They were all toll twenty four in number. Anything narrated by anyone them taken is seriously with authority by the Islamic jurists and is preferred over the others. While working on the subject of inheritance, I observed that Hazrat Imam Abu Hanifa (RA) invariably quoted Hazrat khalifa Rashid (RH), Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbul (RA) would relate to Hazrat Abdullah Bin Masood (RH) while Imam Shafi (RA) and Imam Malik (RA) preferred Hazrat Zaid Bin Sabit (RH).They all had their valid reasons. But the fact of the matter is that dissent was created and it trickled down to a common man. Difference of opinion can happen between the Companions or the jurists and permeates down wards. The best and balanced thing is to accept and follow anyone that you choose but do not condemn others and ridicule them. The accepted way of Sunnis in case of dissentions amongst the Companions (RH) is to follow whoever is chosen by their scholars but not to criticize others. This is the safest way. The Satan is always there to lead us astray, for he swore before Allah Almighty,” I swear by you dignity and grandeur that I shall sit in their way, come from left, come from right ,come from front and back and dissuade them from the right path. You will find very few to be grateful.” Allah Almighty replied to him,” It’s settled now, those who are Mine, you shall not be able to mislead them but those who follow you; I shall fill up the Hell with you and them.” So the Devil is there to create evil suggestions and whisperings. He had enticed some people to believe that Hazrat Ali (RH) was the most deserving candidate for the caliphate after the demise of the Prophet (PBUH). Other Companions (RH) were not fair to him and usurped his right. So according to them all the other Companions of the Prophet (PBUH) turned infidel and hypocrites. Thus by this belief our religion got restricted to only those chosen from amongst the family of the Prophet (PBUH). They consider some companions of their leader to have an edge over the holy Prophet (PBUH). They claim Hazrat Jaffer Sadiq (RA) to be their elder, where as he is from the Sunni sect. They consider his colleagues to be on the right path. There is enough of logic in it? Unfortunately they do not want to give the same advantage to the holy Prophet (PBUH); anyone who happens to be his (PBUH) companion (RH) is also on the right path. Isn’t this a satanic ploy? Who has led them away from the truth? Let us look at another aspect. The Prophet (PBUH) is the last Messenger; he is the best of them all and also he is the beloved of Allah Almighty. Yet according to their criteria, he (PBUH) could lead only a few onto the right track; while rest of the Companions (RH) went astray. This is absurd and is an insult to our Prophet (PBUH). The Prophet (PBUH) had claimed that correct path for true believers is the one that he (PBUH) along with his (PBUH) Companions (RH) treaded. This is one group of the insolent people. The devil enticed yet another group of people to stand against them. His persistent effort is to encourage infighting amongst the Muslims. To confront and fight one misguided group he has created another similar party, who are insolent to Hazrat Ali (RH), Hazrat Hasan (RH), Hazrat Hussain (RH) and Hazrat Abbas. This second group of the misled (nasib’e) not only ridicules the family of the Prophet PBUH (Alh e Bait) but has concocted false stories to defame them. Little do they realize that in the name of defending the Companions (RH) they tarnishing the image of other Companions (RH).This is out rightly criminal and negation of the Prophet’s (PBUH) saying اﷲ اﷲ فی اصحابی. The Satin has misled them to the extent that they fail to understand very simple things which even a child can fathom. May Allah Almighty keep us away from such brazen ignorance. Amen. By the grace of Allah Almighty Ahl e Sunit wa Jammat (sunnis) is defending them all alike. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RH) is a close companion of the Prophet (PBUH) and so is Hazrat Ali (RH). Anyone opposing any one of them is violating the above quoted verdict of the Prophet (PBUH).Talking against Hazrat Omar (RH) or Hazrat Hussain (RH) is also a grave violation. This way the devilish aim is being met. You must realize that whichever sect you may belong to, it’s damaging either way. We all know that our Prophet (PBUH) only spoke what was revealed to him and Quran bears testimony to this. So he chose to clarify the positions of all those who could be hurt by this slander. This list includes Hazrat Abu Bakr (RH), Hazrat Omar (RH), Hazrat Usman (RH), Hazrat Ali (RH), Hazrats Hasan and Hussain (RH) and Hazrat Amir Maevia (RH). About Hazrat Abu Bakr (RH), the Prophet (PBUH) said,” If I have to chose a friend I shall chose Abu Bakr. I have returned the favours of everyone else but those Abu Bakr shall be rewarded by Allah Almighty.” Referring to Hazrat Omar (RH) he (PBUH) said, “Omar always speaks the truth and a path that he chooses is avoided by the devil.” He (PBUH) titled Hazrat Usman (RH) as ‘Zulnurean”, married two of his daughters with him. On their demise said that if there were more of them, they would have also been wed to him. And then added that from now on irrespective of what Usman does he would go to the Paradise. Hazrat Ali (RH) was named as the door of knowledge. The Prophet (PBUH) said,” Ali you are like the Christ (AS) was amongst the prophets (AS). Those who love him too much are misguided and those against him are also wicked”. The Prophet (PBUH) before his demise also told Hazrat Ali (RH),” I am leaving behind two things with you, each one is sacred than the other. One is Quran and other are my siblings. Hazrat Ahmad Bin Hunbal (RA) has narrated that Hazrat Abu Bakr (RH) told Hazrat Ali (RH) that family of the Prophet (PBUH) was dearer to him than his own family. Hazrat Omar (RH) had told Hazrat Abbas (RH) that his accepting Islam was liked more by him than his (Omar’s) father becoming a Muslim. To safeguard these revered personalities against any slur or misperception Allah Almighty made the Prophet (PBUH) to say these words of praise for them. Sunnis accept all of them and do not condemn or reject anyone. We consider them all to be the blessed and protected human beings notwithstanding their gradation of pre eminence. In our reckoning the sequence of Khalifat (caliphate) is also the order of the established pre eminence, because the Companions (RH) had consented to follow this order. First of all Hazrat Abu Bakr (RH) was chosen, and then came Hazrat Omar (RH), after him Hazrat Usman (RH) was picked as the third caliph and then Hazrat Ali (RH) was next in the line. To elucidate the Sunni thought I will quote two examples. Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani was asked to compare the caliphates of Hazrat Amir Maviya (RH) and Hazrat Omar Bin Abdul Aziz (RA). Being a descendent of Hazrat Ali (RH) who had differences with Hazrat Amir Maviya (RH), Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani (RA) should have logically opined negatively about Hazrat Maviya (RH). But he said that Omar Bin Abdul Aziz (RA) was not even comparable to the dust in the nostrils of the steed that Hazrat Maviya (RH) rode in fighting alongside the Prophet (PBUH). Now the second example is from the same Hazrat Omar bin Abdul Aziz (RA). Somebody in his presence called Yazid as Amir ul Momineen (Leader of Muslims).He was ordered to be lashed twenty whips. In another place someone had passed derogatory remarks about Hazrat Amir Maviya (RH).He was also ordered to be lashed twenty whips by Omar Bin Abdul Aziz (RA). Apparently it was a matter of a father and a son (Yazid was son of Hazrat Maviya RH) but it is not that simple as it appears. It was an issue between a Companion (sa’habi) and a follower (Ta’bee). When a hadith is quoted, people are referred to as from ---- from ----, but when it reaches the name of a Companion it is said وھو الصحابی والصحابہ کلہم عدول and it is ended there. Close scrutiny of these writings reveal that where as chronological details about Tabeen and taba Tabeen are listed but when a Companion (RH) is mentioned the referral process is ended there and then. Our comparable standards for the Companions (RH) are different from Ta’been (immediate followers of the Companions) and all those who came later. Talking about the “ilm e al rijal” (knowledge of men), all their books have unanimously laid down court of Yazid as invalid and he is not considered suitable to be a link in quoting the hadith. Hafiz ibne Hajr Esqalani (RA) in his book ‘ taqreeb al tehzeeb’ writes,’ Yazin s/o Maviya s/o Abu Sufyan Al umvi abu Khalid became Caliph in 60 Hijra and died in 64 Hijra. He could not reach an age of 40 years. He is not considered suitable to refer a hadith.’ In ‘Al biaya v nehiya’ it is written :- فانہ، لم یمھل بعد وقعۃ الحرۃ و قتل حسین الا یسیراً حتیٰ قصمہ اﷲ الذی قصم الجابرۃ قبلہ و بعدہ، انہ، کان علیماً قدیراً (Undoubtedly after the Harra incident and martyrdom of Imam Hussain (RH) , Yazid was left free for a little while and then killed by Allah Almighty ,Who before and after him kills the cruel. He hath all knowledge and is the most powerful) Let me inform you here that this book had not been written by a Shia scholar. It was written by Allama Ibne Kasir (RA) who is also the author of ‘Tafseer Ibne Kasir’ and a student of Ibne Tamaya (RA). Even in other books of Al rijal Yazid has not been spared. Allama Jalaluddin Sayuti was a very careful and cautious in his writings. Mostly he kept his cool and was not aroused in anger easily. However in his Book ‘Tarikh ul Khulfa’ writing about Hira incident, martyrdom of Imam Hussain (RH) and stoning of Kabba he openly hurls curses on Yazid, لعن اﷲ قاتلہ وا بن زیاد معہ و یزید ایضاً ( Allah’s curses on the murderer, Ibne Ziad and his gang and also on Yazid ). As far as cursing Yazid is concerned there are two schools of thought in Ahl e Sunnah. Some elders consider it inappropriate and waste of time. Not that they do not consider him to be a bad person. Their contention is that since adjuring someone is not obligatory, something better and more useful be done instead. While the other school of thought considers rebuking to be in accordance with the holy Quran and the Hadith. Six things mentioned in the Hadith for rebuke, four out of them exited in Yazid. سِتَّةٌ لَعَنَهُمْ اللَّهُ وَكُلُّ نَبِيٍّ مُجَاب الدعوۃ لزَّائِدُ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَالْمُكَذِّبُ بِقَدَرِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَالْمُتَسَلِّطُ بِالْجَبَرُوتِ يُذِلُّ بِهِ مَنْ أَعَزَّ اللَّهُ - عَزَّ وَجَلَّ - وَيُعِزُّ بِهِ مَنْ أَذَلَّ اللَّهُ - عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَالْمُسْتَحِلُّ لِحُرُمِ اللَّهِ - عَزَّ وَجَلَّ - وَالْمُسْتَحِلُّ مِنْ عِتْرَتِي مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَالتَّارِكُ لِسُنَّتِي This hadith has been cited by Abu Dawood, Abne Majja and Hakim. Shah Waliullah (RA) has quoted it in his book ‘Shara Trajim Bukhari’. In this hadith all those have been cursed and rebuked who refute destiny, solicit power through force /coercion and cruelty in order to degrade the honoured and upgrade the down trodden, do things for bidden by Allah Almighty, molest the honour of their children and those who discard Sunnah. Yazid usurped power through coercion, degraded the Companions (RH) and even killed them, honoured the mischievous and molested the sanctity of Kabba and family of the Prophet (PBUH). Man of distinction therefore consider it right to rebuke Yazid. Imam Although Ghazali and Ibne Tamaya have been a bit soft in their writings. But it is for different reasons. Imam Ghazali considered it better to remember Allah than to even rebuke the devil. Their contemporaries, however, through their writings diminished any chance of sympathy for Yazid. When Ghazli the Later and teacher of Imam Ghazali, Shams ul IslamImam Abul Hasan Ali Bin Muhammad Tabri Al mulaqab Imad ud Din Al maruf Balkiaharasi was asked to comment on Yazid. He wrote that Yazid was not a Companion of the Prophet (PBUH) as he was born during the Caliphate of Hazrat Omar (RH). As far as rebuking is concerned there are two quotes; one just barely mentions it while in other details have been given. About his personal opinion on the matter he writes that he subscribed to the one with detailed curses. Why should the one who played chess, hunted with tigers and drank alcohol not be cursed. Someone keen to carryout detailed research may consult the books of later times like Maktubat by Hazrat Mujadid Alf Sani (RA), ‘Tarajim e Bukhari “by Shah Wali Ullah (RA),”Tadhufa Asna e Ashri “ by Shah Abdul Aziz,’shaeed e karbala’ by Mufti Shafi (RA) and books of Maulana Abdul Rashid Naumani titled, ‘’Akabr e Suhaba per Buhtan”,Shaheed Karbala per Aftra” and “ Yazeed ki Shaksiat Ahl Sunnat ke Nazar Maen. Books of the earlier times that may consulted are “al bidaya al nihaya’,Tareekh Khulfai,lisan ul Mizan,Aqaid e Nasfia, Fateh ul Barri, Tareekh Ibne Khalqan and Tareekh Ibne Kaseer. There are some who in the context of the famous hadith pronouncing paradise for participants of the battle for Constantinople claim that Yazid’s participation is confirmed. Maulana Abdul Rashid Naumani (RA) has very effectively written a rebuttal in his book. He writes that in the hadith اول جیش من امتی یغزون مدینۃ قیصر مغفورٌ , two things are vividly pronounced. First is the mention of the first army and secondly the City of Kaiser is indicated. Their correct interpretation is necessary before proceeding any further. If the first army implies just any army, then before Yazid’s undertaking, an expedition under Abdul Rehman Bin Khalid Bin Walid was sent to Constantinople in 46 Hijra, where Abdul Rehman was martyred. There is no mention of the army of Yazid before 49 Hijra, not even by Mahmud Abbasi. However the details of the first expedition can be read in ‘Sunan Dawoodi’. And if the hadith is indicating the successful army, then the forces commanded by Sultan Muhammad Fateh, the Conqueror of Constantinople is implied. So according to Maulana’s research, Yazid was never was a part of this jihad. Actually this fallacy was the handiwork of one Sharah Bukhari Mohlab Al matwafi (433H) who was a Qazi (Judge) in Al Andalus (Spain) which was then ruled by the Umayvads. Notwithstanding the fact that even if there is a chance of Yazid being forgiven, we are convinced of his disobedience of Allah Almighty and impudence. He is however not blamed for infidelity. Allah Almighty can alone pardon a rebel. If repentance is not proven in this world a person cannot be suffixed with the title of .رحمۃ اﷲ علیہ . A statement of respect and reverence cannot be applied to a rebel and the one who makes changes in the religious practices (bida’at). Respecting such a person amounts to damaging the religion. In the book ‘al sawe’k al muhaqa’ it is mentioned that Yazid’s own son did not consider his father suitable to be a caliph. He remained concerned about his father’s life hereafter. Our scholars feel that it is important to call Yazid a disobedient rebel (fasi’q) but not an infidel (kafi’r). Why? Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (RA) states that Yazid may not be directly implicated in the slaying of Hazrat Imam Hussain (RH), but he could have avenged it. Perpetrators of this gruesome act should have taken to task; if it was executed without his explicit permission. Secondly he invaded Madinah Munawra and kept it under siege for three days; giving his troops a free hand to loot and plunder. The Prophet’s Mosque remained closed for three days. Horses were tied in a place as scared as ‘Riaz ul Jannah’. Many of the Companions were martyred. Many of the daughters of the Companions were raped and molested. Repentance has a methodology and rules. It must conform to the crime. A sin committed openly requires a public repentance not a one in solitude. A religious scholar committing a mistake on the pulpit has to beg its forgiveness on a pulpit. He cannot go back to his room and repent there. An error in a book has to be corrected in another book. All the errors in the books of Hazrat Thanvi (RA) were rectified in the later editions. Hazrat Suliman Nadvi (RA) also did the same. Level of repentance should match the gravity of the sin committed. No records of Yazid’s apology for attacking the Holy Places exit. After attacking the Prophet’s (PBUH) Mosque he ordered his forces to attack the Holy Kabbah, where they showered stones. Yazid died while his troops were engaging Hazrat Abdullah Bin Zubair. Informing them about Yazid’s death Hazrat bdullah Zubir (RH) used the term disobedient rebel (fasi’q). Evidently Yazid died without repentance and renunciation of his misdeeds. His three acts of rebellion amply prove that he disobeyed Almighty Allah’s verdicts. Ibne Hajjar Makkhi in his book ‘Al Sawaqe Muhaqa’ has stated that despite calling himself a Muslim, Yazid was a treacherous, rebellion and a cruel person; who was also a drunkard. A prayer of pardon (maghfri’t) can be made for a fasi’q. We can say and also pray that May Allah Almighty pardon Yazid because he was a Muslim since no solid proof of his infidelity is available. How so ever a big sinner one may be, yet a Muslim should not be called an infidel and we must pray for his mercy. None of us will be happy to see a Muslim being thrown into the Hell. If Allah Almighty pardons Yazid and allows him to enter the Paradise, we will be happy. If Allah Almighty chooses to pardon someone, His wish cannot be questioned. We cannot change our principles and will continue to call fasi’q a fasi’q. Allah Almighty may forgive a fasi’q but a non believer and infidel shall not be pardoned. This is the Divine rule. We cannot call Yazid a ‘Rehmat Ullah Ale’ as it clashes with our principles. Imagine the low mentality and status of those wishing to elevate Yazid at the cost of Hussain (RH). The hadith about the capture of Constantinople has been misused to prove the innocence of Yazid. Academically its veracity is also doubtful. On the other hand what about the many sayings of the Prophet (PBUH) calling Hasan and Hussain (RHs) as the Chiefs of young people in the heavens and as his (PBUH) flowers. Anyone ignoring these sayings can be rightly termed from the group of the misled (nas’ibe).This group has detracted in the enmity of Hazrat Ali (RH). The other group of people who went astray in the love of Hazrat Ali (RH) is Shias. They consider and call most of the Companions (RH) as apostates (murti’d). Actually Nasibis are also a group of the Shias. Previously they were known as Marvani Shias. Now they call themselves to be Sunnis. Both the groups are the enemies of the Companions (RH). During the course of my entire lecture I have not uttered a single derogatory word for any one of the Companion (RH).I did not need to do that. Why should I spoil my life hereafter? No Sunni will ever say anything negative about a Companions (RH). By the grace of Allah Almighty we always defend all of them. Conversely if you glean through the literature by Mahmud Ahmed Abbasi or Ahmed Hussin Kamal you will discover lot of insolence towards Hazrat Ali (RH). My request to you all is not to lose your e’maan (belief) by getting infuriated by silly remarks. This caution is more relevant in the month of Moharum. Be patient and show forbearance. Can anyone of us in response to a Christian slandering against our Prophet (PBUH) do the same and abuse Hazrat Essa (AS)-Jesus? We have to protect and save ourselves by not abusing a Companion (RH) on either side. There are three routes of knowing the religion. On is that of the ordinary Companions (RH), other is through the family of the Prophet (PBUH) and lastly intimate matrimonial details are learnt from the wives (RHs) of the Prophet (PBUH). Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqa (RH) was married at a very tender age. This happened in accordance with the Divine design. She was the custodian of almost half the knowledge of Islam. Other Companions similarly were a source of guidance in their respective fields. One with access to the Companions (RH) and not to Ahl e Bait (the family) will be deprived of that much of the religion. Those not reaching out to the wives (RH) would also lose it. What to say of the fate of those opposing them? Hazrat Imam Malik (RA) in the light of the Quranic verses has categorically sermonized that anyone harbouring a grudge against a Companion (RH) is an infidel. In the holy Quran Allah Almighty has made a reference to those لیغیظ بھم الکفار (to burn the hearts of infidels through it). It clearly means the infidels are displeased on hearing the praise of the Companions (RH). Most of the scholars agree on this meaning. Hazrat Imam Malik (RA) however has stated that all those who are displeased on hearing the praise of the Companions (RH) are surely infidels. This is a very sensitive and dangerous interpretation. We must save ourselves. Once I happened to be in a large gathering. Suddenly ciaos and commotion erupted for some reason. Everyone took to their feet. The stage management very shrewdly just kept requesting everyone to seat himself and not to bother about others. In five minutes everyone was seated. How can a person standing himself make others to sit down? Some people in order to seat others get up themselves and add to the ciaos. The best course is to begin preaching and convincing your own self first. Basic thing is the faith (e’maan). If it gets harmed then everything goes for a six. Belief (e’maan) is the main direction of life. A man wanting to go to Lahore, getting impressed with its décor boards a bus. Later he finds out that it is going to Peshawar totally in the opposite direction. The faster the bus moves, faster he is moving away from his real destination. Similarly it applies to the faith (e’maan). No amount of good deeds can recover a damaged e’maan (belief). Hazrat Thanvi (RA) has said that do not teach zik’r (remembrance of Allah Almighty) to non Muslims. It has its physical characteristics of giving solace and satisfaction. الا بذکر اللہ تطمئن القلوب . It does not say that satisfaction is only restricted to Muslims. A non believer will also feel the effects. The difference is that he would be happy with whatever he gets. A Christian Hypnotist once asked Hazrat Maulana Ashraf (RA) the difference in ecstasy through zik’r and hypnotism. Maulana (RA) replied that an object can be washed and cleaned with water and urine; apparently with the same result. But one can purify and with the other it will remains dirty. So remember that faith (e’maan) is essential and it has to be protected and guarded. These are dangerous and difficult times. Our Holy Prophet (PBUH) had indicated that a time would come when a Muslim in the morning would turn into an infidel in the evening one in the evening would change in the morning. Evil and sedition is spreading rapidly like the beads of a rosary. Apparently the indicated time seem to have arrived. May Allah Almighty protect us. Amin. It is becoming difficult to die with e’maan (faith) which is essential to be carried right up to the grave. Anyone who succeeds in doing so has a chance of being saved on the Day of Judgment. One does not know at whose intercession shall one be pardoned? Then Allah Almighty has His own many ways of forgiving the sinners. So remember how important it is to safeguard our faith ((e’maan). It does not mean that in the hope of being pardoned one should become bold on committing sins. Some times their abundance can also be a cause of forfeiture of faith (e’maan). A person failing to perform obligatory pilgrimage, when he can afford it is also liable to lose his faith. Follower of an Imam changed his cult to another one to get married there. The religious scholars ruled that he was liable to lose his faith because he had changed it for worldly reasons without any research and investigation. Extra care needs to be exercised to make sure that nothing is done which can infringe upon the religion. A Qadiani came to a scholar and told him that before conversion he got evil whisperings (waswasa) during prayers but after changing the religion these have subsided and he can pray in peace. The scholar asked him, where does a thief go; to a house with holdings or a place with garbage? Earlier he had the wealth of e’maan, so the Devil would come to him often. Now that it’s gone and he was left with muck and waste, so why should the Devil bother him now. Despite any amount of good deeds anyone without e’maan would finally land in the Hell. It is important to understand that differentiation between deeds and faith is essential. Without true faith no deed is acceptable. Nonetheless do not under rate the deeds as well. Their deficiency can result in the forfeiture of e’maan. May Allah Almighty protect us all. Amin.